Scientists at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan have developed the first microchip valve powered by living cells. Earthworm muscle tissue allowed for a high contractile force that could be sustained for minutes, and unlike electrically controlled valves, did not require any external power source such as batteries.
For several decades, researchers have been trying to combine microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with living material. Bio-MEMS have many applications, ranging from improved drug delivery and optical and electrochemical sensors to organs-on-chips. The team of researchers from RIKEN BDR and Tokyo Denki University have been developing a bio-MEMS that is driven by real muscle, which could be useful in surgical implants. Building on their on-chip micropump design, the new study is the proof-of-concept for an on-chip muscle-driven valve.
In mechanics, an actuator is the part of a machine that controls a mechanism by making it move, such as the opening and closing of a valve. Actuators require a power source and a control signal, which are typically electric current or some kind of fluid pressure. The main advantage for using muscles as actuators in bio-MEM systems is that they can be powered the same way as they are in living bodies: chemically. For muscles, the signal for contraction is the molecule acetylcholine–which is delivered by neurons–and the energy source is adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–which exists inside muscle cells.
“Not only can our bio-MEMS work without an external power source, but unlike other chemically driven valves that are controlled by acids, our muscle-driven valve runs on molecules that are naturally abundant in living organisms,” says first author Yo Tanaka from RIKEN BDR. “This makes it bio-friendly and especially suited for medical applications in which the use of electricity is difficult or not advised.”
The team initially determined that a small 1 cm × 3 cm sheet of earthworm muscle could produce an average contractile force of about 1.5 milli-newtons over a 2-min period when stimulated by a very small amount of acetylcholine. Using this data, they build a microfluid channel and valve on a 2 cm × 2 cm microchip that could be controlled by the contraction/relaxation of earthworm muscle.
To test the system, they used a microscope to monitor fluorescently labeled microparticles in liquid as they flowed through the microchannel. When acetylcholine was applied, the muscle contacted. The resulting force was transduced to a bar that was pushed down to close the valve, which successfully stopped the flow of liquid. When the acetylcholine was washed away, the muscle relaxed, the valve re-opened, and the fluid flowed again.
“Now that we have shown that on-chip muscle-driven valves are possible, we can work on improvements that will make it practical,” says Tanaka. “One option is to use cultured muscle cells. This might enable mass-production, better control, and flexibility in terms of shape. However, we will have to account for the reduction in the amount of force that can be produced this way compared with real muscle sheets.”
The Latest on: Bio-MEMS
via Google News
The Latest on: Bio-MEMS
- Bio-MEMS Market 2020-2024 / Latest Trends and Advancement Outlookon August 8, 2020 at 10:17 pm
Development of patient monitoring equipment system and increase in demand of artificial limbs are the major factors driving the global Bio-MEMS market. Additionally, low cost, high efficacy, and ...
- Bio-Mems Devices Market Global Competitive Analysis and Forecasts till 2026on July 27, 2020 at 6:00 am
The Global Bio-Mems Devices Market Research Report 2020-2026 is a valuable source of insightful data for business strategists. It provides the industry overview with growth analysis and historical & ...
- The Global Bio-MEMS Devices Market is expected to grow by $ 11.92 bn during 2020-2024 progressing at a CAGR of 24% during the forecast periodon July 21, 2020 at 11:15 pm
Disclaimer | Commerce Policy | Made In NYC | Stock quotes by finanzen.net New York, July 22, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Global Bio-MEMS Devices ...
- The Global Bio-MEMS Devices Market is expected to grow by $ 11.92 bn during 2020-2024 progressing at a CAGR of 24% during the forecast periodon July 21, 2020 at 10:47 pm
The analyst has been monitoring the bio-MEMS devices market and it is poised to grow by $ 11. 92 bn during 2020-2024 progressing at a CAGR of 24% during the forecast period.New York, July 22, 2020 ...
- The Global Bio-MEMS Devices Market is expected to grow by $ 11.92 bn during 2020-2024 progressing at a CAGR of 24% during the forecast periodon July 21, 2020 at 10:43 pm
New York, July 22, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Global Bio-MEMS Devices Market 2020-2024" - https://www.reportlinker ...
- Bio-MEMS Market Predicted to Witness a Property Boom Over 2020 – 2024on July 20, 2020 at 12:12 am
Jul 20, 2020 (AmericaNewsHour) -- Global Bio-MEMS Market is forecasted to reach $3,702 million by 2024; growing at a CAGR of 20.9% from 2016 to 2024. Bio-MEMS or bio-medical micro electro ...
- Global Bio-MEMS Devices Market Analysis Highlights the Impact of COVID-19 (2020-2024)| Growing Geriatric Population to Boost Market Growth | Technavioon July 9, 2020 at 3:14 pm
LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Technavio has been monitoring the global Bio-MEMS devices market size and it is poised to grow by USD 11.92 billion during 2020-2024, progressing at a CAGR of almost 24% ...
via Bing News