A battery-like device could act as an artificial synapse within computing systems intended to imitate the brain’s efficiency and ability to learn.
The brain’s capacity for simultaneously learning and memorizing large amounts of information while requiring little energy has inspired an entire field to pursue brain-like – or neuromorphic – computers. Researchers at Stanford University and Sandia National Laboratories previously developed one portion of such a computer: a device that acts as an artificial synapse, mimicking the way neurons communicate in the brain.
In a paper published online by the journal Science on April 25, the team reports that a prototype array of nine of these devices performed even better than expected in processing speed, energy efficiency, reproducibility and durability.
Looking forward, the team members want to combine their artificial synapse with traditional electronics, which they hope could be a step toward supporting artificially intelligent learning on small devices.
“If you have a memory system that can learn with the energy efficiency and speed that we’ve presented, then you can put that in a smartphone or laptop,” said Scott Keene, co-author of the paper and a graduate student in the lab of Alberto Salleo, professor of materials science and engineering at Stanford who is co-senior author. “That would open up access to the ability to train our own networks and solve problems locally on our own devices without relying on data transfer to do so.”
A bad battery, a good synapse
The team’s artificial synapse is similar to a battery, modified so that the researchers can dial up or down the flow of electricity between the two terminals. That flow of electricity emulates how learning is wired in the brain. This is an especially efficient design because data processing and memory storage happen in one action, rather than a more traditional computer system where the data is processed first and then later moved to storage.
Seeing how these devices perform in an array is a crucial step because it allows the researchers to program several artificial synapses simultaneously. This is far less time consuming than having to program each synapse one-by-one and is comparable to how the brain actually works.
In previous tests of an earlier version of this device, the researchers found their processing and memory action requires about one-tenth as much energy as a state-of-the-art computing system needs in order to carry out specific tasks. Still, the researchers worried that the sum of all these devices working together in larger arrays could risk drawing too much power. So, they retooled each device to conduct less electrical current – making them much worse batteries but making the array even more energy efficient.
When we saw everything light up, it was like a Christmas tree. That was the most exciting moment.
Postdoc, Salleo lab
The 3-by-3 array relied on a second type of device – developed by Joshua Yang at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, who is co-author of the paper – that acts as a switch for programming synapses within the array.
“Wiring everything up took a lot of troubleshooting and a lot of wires. We had to ensure all of the array components were working in concert,” said Armantas Melianas, a postdoctoral scholar in the Salleo lab. “But when we saw everything light up, it was like a Christmas tree. That was the most exciting moment.”
During testing, the array outperformed the researchers’ expectations. It performed with such speed that the team predicts the next version of these devices will need to be tested with special high-speed electronics. After measuring high energy efficiency in the 3-by-3 array, the researchers ran computer simulations of a larger 1024-by-1024 synapse array and estimated that it could be powered by the same batteries currently used in smartphones or small drones. The researchers were also able to switch the devices over a billion times – another testament to its speed – without seeing any degradation in its behavior.
“It turns out that polymer devices, if you treat them well, can be as resilient as traditional counterparts made of silicon. That was maybe the most surprising aspect from my point of view,” Salleo said. “For me, it changes how I think about these polymer devices in terms of reliability and how we might be able to use them.”
Room for creativity
The researchers haven’t yet submitted their array to tests that determine how well it learns but that is something they plan to study. The team also wants to see how their device weathers different conditions – such as high temperatures – and to work on integrating it with electronics. There are also many fundamental questions left to answer that could help the researchers understand exactly why their device performs so well.
“We hope that more people will start working on this type of device because there are not many groups focusing on this particular architecture, but we think it’s very promising,” Melianas said.
The Latest on: Artificially intelligent learning
via Google News
The Latest on: Artificially intelligent learning
- Botch Artificial Intelligence, Go Out Of Business, Executives Fearon November 18, 2019 at 11:06 pm
Artificial intelligence (AI) is seen by many as the best path to competitive advantage and ... They’re comprised of data scientists; data modelers; machine learning, data and AI engineers; ...
- How to Use Machine Learning to Drive Real Valueon November 18, 2019 at 7:44 pm
Artificial intelligence and machine learning are now being applied by innovative businesses to create real-time, personalized experiences at scale with models that intelligently orchestrate offerings ...
- New System Uses Artificial Intelligence To Predict Lightning Strikeson November 18, 2019 at 5:47 pm
A team of researchers was able to develop a new system that can predict when and where lightning will strike using artificial intelligence (AI). According to the researchers ... The researchers noted ...
- CognitiveScale’s Cortex Certifai Wins at the Global Annual Achievement Awards for Artificial Intelligenceon November 18, 2019 at 4:29 pm
the world’s first automated scanner for black-box AI models that detects and scores vulnerabilities in most types of machine learning and statistical models, has won at the Global Annual Achievement ...
- Artificial intelligence turns to antibody selectionon November 18, 2019 at 10:59 am
Leung wanted a solution, and along with University of Toronto colleagues, Elvis Wianda, David Chen and Liran Belenzon, founded BenchSci, an artificial intelligence (AI) platform that allows ...
- How To Get Your Résumé Past The Artificial Intelligence Gatekeeperson November 18, 2019 at 6:34 am
Many enterprise businesses use Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning tools to screen résumés when recruiting and hiring new employees. Even small to midsize companies who use recruiting ...
- Understanding the scope of regional languages through artificial intelligenceon November 17, 2019 at 10:44 pm
How can then we make use of the sophisticated artificial intelligence (AI) technology, that has taken over the world in just ... natural language processing and machine learning. How it works Language ...
- Artificial Intelligence Can Now Predict When Lightning Will Strikeon November 17, 2019 at 7:08 am
In Switzerland, a team of researchers from École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne may have an answer: artificial intelligence. Using standard meteorological data and machine learning, the scientists ...
- Artificial Intelligence- The future of Digital Marketingon November 16, 2019 at 11:55 pm
Artificial intelligence also makes it possible to operate a learning machine that builds automated models that allow you to predict the next step of the customer and what other interests may be of ...
- Artificial Intelligence in Education Market 2018-2023|Analysis by Growth, Emerging Trends and Future Opportunitieson November 15, 2019 at 12:35 am
Nov 15, 2019 (AmericaNewsHour) -- Artificial Intelligence in Education Market Research Report, Application (Content Delivery Systems), Technology (Machine Learning, Natural Learning Process), ...
via Bing News