ETH researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells. This represents a huge step towards creating powerful biocomputers.
Controlling gene expression through gene switches based on a model borrowed from the digital world has long been one of the primary objectives of synthetic biology. The digital technique uses what are known as logic gates to process input signals, creating circuits where, for example, output signal C is produced only when input signals A and B are simultaneously present.
To date, biotechnologists had attempted to build such digital circuits with the help of protein gene switches in cells. However, these had some serious disadvantages: they were not very flexible, could accept only simple programming, and were capable of processing just one input at a time, such as a specific metabolic molecule. More complex computational processes in cells are thus possible only under certain conditions, are unreliable, and frequently fail.
Even in the digital world, circuits depend on a single input in the form of electrons. However, such circuits compensate for this with their speed, executing up to a billion commands per second. Cells are slower in comparison, but can process up to 100,000 different metabolic molecules per second as inputs. And yet previous cell computers did not even come close to exhausting the enormous metabolic computational capacity of a human cell.
A CPU of biological components
A team of researchers led by Martin Fussenegger, Professor of Biotechnology and Bioengineering at the Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering at ETH Zurich in Basel, have now found a way to use biological components to construct a flexible core processor, or central processing unit (CPU), that accepts different kinds of programming. The processor developed by the ETH scientists is based on a modified CRISPR-Cas9 system and basically can work with as many inputs as desired in the form of RNA molecules (known as guide RNA).
A special variant of the Cas9 protein forms the core of the processor. In response to input delivered by guide RNA sequences, the CPU regulates the expression of a particular gene, which in turn makes a particular protein. With this approach, researchers can program scalable circuits in human cells – like digital half adders, these consist of two inputs and two outputs and can add two single-digit binary numbers.
Powerful multicore data processing
The researchers took it a step further: they created a biological dual-core processor, similar to those in the digital world, by integrating two cores into a cell. To do so, they used CRISPR-Cas9 components from two different bacteria. Fussenegger was delighted with the result, saying: “We have created the first cell computer with more than one core processor.”
This biological computer is not only extremely small, but in theory can be scaled up to any conceivable size. “Imagine a microtissue with billions of cells, each equipped with its own dual-core processor. Such ‘computational organs’ could theoretically attain computing power that far outstrips that of a digital supercomputer – and using just a fraction of the energy,” Fussenegger says.
Applications in diagnostics and treatment
A cell computer could be used to detect biological signals in the body, such as certain metabolic products or chemical messengers, process them and respond to them accordingly. With a properly programmed CPU, the cells could interpret two different biomarkers as input signals. If only biomarker A is present, then the biocomputer responds by forming a diagnostic molecule or a pharmaceutical substance. If the biocomputer registers only biomarker B, then it triggers production of a different substance. If both biomarkers are present, that induces yet a third reaction. Such a system could find application in medicine, for example in cancer treatment.
“We could also integrate feedback,” Fussenegger says. For example, if biomarker B remains in the body for a longer period of time at a certain concentration, this could indicate that the cancer is metastasising. The biocomputer would then produce a chemical substance that targets those growths for treatment.
Multicore processors possible
“This cell computer may sound like a very revolutionary idea, but that’s not the case,” Fussenegger emphasises. He continues: “The human body itself is a large computer. Its metabolism has drawn on the computing power of trillions of cells since time immemorial.” These cells continually receive information from the outside world or from other cells, process the signals and respond accordingly – whether it be by emitting chemical messengers or triggering metabolic processes. “And in contrast to a technical supercomputer, this large computer needs just a slice of bread for energy,” Fussenegger points out.
His next goal is to integrate a multicore computer structure into a cell. “This would have even more computing power than the current dual core structure,” he says.
Learn more: A biosynthetic dual-core cell computer
The Latest on: Biocomputers
via Google News
The Latest on: Biocomputers
- Scientists create programmable circuits in HUMAN CELLS, in gene-editing breakthrough they claim could lead to powerful 'biocomputers' on April 17, 2019 at 2:10 pm
Researchers say they've successfully created a more powerful computer-like human cell that could eventually be used to help monitor one's health or even fight against cancer and other illnesses. Using ... […]
- CRISPR can turn human cells into biocomputers on April 16, 2019 at 4:14 pm
Researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells, a step towards creating powerful biocomputers. Controlling gene expression through gene switches based on a model ... […]
- A biosynthetic dual-core cell computer on April 16, 2019 at 5:20 am
ETH researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells. This represents a huge step towards creating powerful biocomputers. Controlling gene expression through gene ... […]
- Biocomputers Made From Cells Can Now Handle More Complex Logic on August 8, 2017 at 8:03 am
When it comes to biomolecules, RNA doesn’t get a lot of love. Maybe you haven’t even heard of the silent workhorse. RNA is the cell’s de facto translator: like a game of telephone, RNA takes DNA’s ... […]
- New Hope for Biocomputers: Parallel Network-Based Computation on April 13, 2017 at 11:29 am
Through the Bio4Comp multidisciplinary project, researchers from different fields of expertise (e.g., mathematics, biology, engineering, and computation) plan to build a network-based biocomputer that ... […]
- Scientists turn human kidney cells into tiny biocomputers on March 28, 2017 at 9:35 am
A team of scientists from Boston University have found a way to hack into mammalian cells -- human cells, even -- and make them follow logical instructions like computers can. While they're not the ... […]
- New Research Turns Mammalian Cells Into Biocomputers on March 27, 2017 at 5:00 pm
For their study, the genetic circuit itself was designed using an existing machinery in cells called a promoter. That DNA snippet transcribes a cell’s DNA to RNA and then translates that into proteins ... […]
- Scientists turn mammalian cells into complex biocomputers on March 27, 2017 at 8:17 am
Computer hardware is getting a softer side. A research team has come up with a way of genetically engineering the DNA of mammalian cells to carry out complex computations, in effect turning the cells ... […]
- Molecular motor-powered biocomputers on March 20, 2017 at 10:34 am
Launch of a five-year, 6.1 million euros EU-Horizon 2020 project that aims to build a new type of powerful computer based on biomolecules Crashing computers or smartphones and software security holes ... […]
- Molecular motor-powered biocomputers on March 20, 2017 at 7:30 am
Launch of a five-year, 6.1 M€ EU-Horizon 2020 project that aims to build a new type of powerful computer based on biomolecules, TU Dresden is participating Crashing computers or smartphones and ... […]
via Bing News