In part because of its resistance to many antibiotics, tuberculosis kills approximately 1.7 million people worldwide each year. But new research from the University of Notre Dame suggests that structures released by the infected cells may be used in tandem with antibiotics to boost the body’s immune system, helping fight off the disease.
The paper, published in EMBO Reports by Jeffrey Schorey, the George B. Craig Jr. Professor, and Yong Cheng, research assistant professor, both in the Department of Biological Sciences, describes how the structures, called extracellular vesicles (EVs), contain Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA and transfer it to other cells. This starts a built-in weapon system against the disease in the form of an immune response.
Though extracellular vesicles containing RNA from viruses had been discovered years ago, Schorey and his collaborators recently discovered RNA from bacteria — Mycobacterium tuberculosis — in EVs. This discovery led to experiments described in the EMBO Reports paper to determine how the bacteria’s RNA was affecting the “target” cell, including cells infected by M. tuberculosis.
A key research discovery hinges on macrophages, which are cells of the immune system. These cells, when treated with EVs released from M. tuberculosis-infected cells, can control the infection better than macrophages not previously exposed to the EVs, Schorey and Cheng determined. “It had never before been shown that bacterial RNA in EVs can activate this sensing pathway, one that has primarily been thought to be involved in viral sensing,” Schorey said. The authors then show that EV-treated macrophages produce compounds like reactive oxygen species that can promote the killing of the M. tuberculosis once it infects the macrophage.
The discovery is important because it can lead to future therapies for treatment of tuberculosis. Preliminary data in the paper suggest that antibiotics might work better when combined with an immunotherapy based on using these EVs. The data from the mouse model showed that more of the bacterial-infected cells were killed with the combination of therapies than either antibiotics or EVs alone, Schorey noted.
The next steps for future research are to try this approach with other laboratory models, with the goal that they also show the benefit of combining EVs, as immunotherapy treatments, with antibiotics to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Worldwide, more than 10 million people develop active tuberculosis each year. Furthermore, over two billion people are infected with the bacteria. This results in a reservoir of infected people who may develop disease if their immune systems are compromised.
The Latest on: Tuberculosis
via Google News
The Latest on: Tuberculosis
- Scientists discover potential method to starve the bacteria that cause tuberculosison November 25, 2020 at 1:24 pm
The infectious disease Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. While rates of TB in Canada have remained relatively static since the 1980s, the disease disproportionately ...
- Lung-on-chip provides new insight on body's response to early tuberculosis infectionon November 24, 2020 at 9:58 am
Scientists have developed a lung-on-chip model to study how the body responds to early tuberculosis (TB) infection, according to findings published today in eLife.
- Tuberculosis diagnosis in Rockhampton aged care worker sparks widespread screening of residents, staffon November 23, 2020 at 9:44 pm
A staff member at a Rockhampton aged care facility has been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, sending 29 residents and 42 staff of the facility through screening.
- Tuberculosis Testing Market Research Study including Growth Factors, Types and Application by regions from 2020 to 2025on November 22, 2020 at 10:03 pm
The Tuberculosis Testing market is expected to exceed more than US$ 2900 million by 2024; growing at a CAGR of more than ...
- Can a century-old vaccine for tuberculosis help defeat COVID-19? New research offers some clueson November 22, 2020 at 2:16 pm
While all eyes have been focused on the race to develop a COVID-19 vaccine, other researchers have been furiously working on another way to defeat the coronavirus. It's a vaccine with a very long ...
- Tuberculosis Vaccine Could Mitigate Risk Of Contracting COVID-19, Study Showson November 20, 2020 at 10:27 am
Sinai is showing that a tuberculosis vaccine could help prevent coronavirus infections. The study published Thursday in the Journal of Clinical Investigation found that people who had received the ...
- Study: Tuberculosis vaccine linked to lower risk of contracting COVID-19on November 20, 2020 at 9:51 am
A widely used tuberculosis vaccine is associated with reduced likelihood of contracting COVID-19 (coronavirus), according to a new study by Cedars-Sinai. The findings raise the possibility that a ...
- WHO and other stakeholders join forces to accelerate access to effective paediatric HIV and tuberculosis diagnostics and medicineson November 19, 2020 at 11:57 pm
On World Children’s Day, WHO is pleased to issue a call urging stakeholders to accelerate access to effective paediatric HIV and tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics and medicines.
- Texas A&M Needs Frontline Workers to Test Tuberculosis Vaccine in Fight Against COVID-19on November 19, 2020 at 11:12 am
Texas A&M University researchers are looking for hundreds of first responders and frontline medical workers to join a clinical trial of a current tuberculosis vaccine that could be used in the fight ...
- Tuberculosis (TB) Diagnostics Market Global Trends, Market Share, Industry Size, Growth, Opportunities and Market Forecast 2020 to 2027on November 17, 2020 at 5:37 am
The Global Tuberculosis (TB) Diagnostics Market is estimated to register a CAGR of over 4.5% during the forecast period 2020 to 2027. The research report on Tuberculosis (TB) Diagnostics provide ...
via Bing News