Scientists from Jülich together with colleagues from Aachen and Turin have produced a memristive element made from nanowires that functions in much the same way as a biological nerve cell.
The component is able to both save and process information, as well as receive numerous signals in parallel. The resistive switching cell made from oxide crystal nanowires is thus proving to be the ideal candidate for use in building bioinspired “neuromorphic” processors, able to take over the diverse functions of biological synapses and neurons.
Computers have learned a lot in recent years. Thanks to rapid progress in artificial intelligence they are now able to drive cars, translate texts, defeat world champions at chess, and much more besides. In doing so, one of the greatest challenges lies in the attempt to artificially reproduce the signal processing in the human brain. In neural networks, data are stored and processed to a high degree in parallel. Traditional computers on the other hand rapidly work through tasks in succession and clearly distinguish between the storing and processing of information. As a rule, neural networks can only be simulated in a very cumbersome and inefficient way using conventional hardware.
Systems with neuromorphic chips that imitate the way the human brain works offer significant advantages. Experts in the field describe this type of bioinspired computer as being able to work in a decentralised way, having at its disposal a multitude of processors, which, like neurons in the brain, are connected to each other by networks. If a processor breaks down, another can take over its function. What is more, just like in the brain, where practice leads to improved signal transfer, a bioinspired processor should have the capacity to learn.
“With today’s semiconductor technology, these functions are to some extent already achievable. These systems are however suitable for particular applications and require a lot of space and energy,” says Dr. Ilia Valov from Forschungszentrum Jülich. “Our nanowire devices made from zinc oxide crystals can inherently process and even store information, as well as being extremely small and energy efficient,” explains the researcher from Jülich’s Peter Grünberg Institute.
For years memristive cells have been ascribed the best chances of being capable of taking over the function of neurons and synapses in bioinspired computers. They alter their electrical resistance depending on the intensity and direction of the electric current flowing through them. In contrast to conventional transistors, their last resistance value remains intact even when the electric current is switched off. Memristors are thus fundamentally capable of learning.
In order to create these properties, scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich and RWTH Aachen University used a single zinc oxide nanowire, produced by their colleagues from the polytechnic university in Turin. Measuring approximately one ten-thousandth of a millimeter in size, this type of nanowire is over a thousand times thinner than a human hair. The resulting memristive component not only takes up a tiny amount of space, but also is able to switch much faster than flash memory.
Nanowires offer promising novel physical properties compared to other solids and are used among other things in the development of new types of solar cells, sensors, batteries and computer chips. Their manufacture is comparatively simple. Nanowires result from the evaporation deposition of specified materials onto a suitable substrate, where they practically grow of their own accord.
In order to create a functioning cell, both ends of the nanowire must be attached to suitable metals, in this case platinum and silver. The metals function as electrodes, and in addition, release ions triggered by an appropriate electric current. The metal ions are able to spread over the surface of the wire and build a bridge to alter its conductivity.
Components made from single nanowires are, however, still too isolated to be of practical use in chips. Consequently, the next step being planned by the Jülich and Turin researchers is to produce and study a memristive element, composed of a larger, relatively easy to generate group of several hundred nanowires offering more exciting functionalities.
Learn more: Artificial Synapses Made from Nanowires
The Latest on: Artificial synapses
via Google News
The Latest on: Artificial synapses
- The Neuron – A Hackers Perspectiveon November 26, 2020 at 4:00 pm
The connection is called a synapse but is not a physical one ... you’re in a better position to understand artificial neural networks.
- Catastrophic Forgetting: Learning’s Effect On Machine Mindson November 24, 2020 at 4:00 pm
where they meet at microscopic gaps called synapses. The value of the weight between two artificial neurons is roughly like the number of axons between biological neurons in the brain.
- Synapse XT Reviews – All-Natural Dietary Supplement Any Good?on November 24, 2020 at 1:33 pm
Synapse XT as a supplement is wholesome, and not just like any regular allopathic medicine that depends on artificial methods to treat ailments, and can leave you with serious side effects. Synapse XT ...
- Synapse XT Reviews Exposed | Is It Safe for Tinnitus ? Read Beforeon November 21, 2020 at 7:34 am
Synapse XT Reviews. The name has told you that whats about the Synapse XT Supplement is? Then you would like to hear about my experi ...
- Synapse XT Reviews: Does It Really Stop Tinnitus?on November 19, 2020 at 12:15 pm
This supplement contains no artificial ingredients or chemicals. Synapse XT also uses natural and organic ingredients to help relieve Tinnitus symptoms without adverse side effects. Any generally ...
- Africa’s first AI-focused startup to investor matchmaking service launcheson November 17, 2020 at 10:30 pm
The Deal Room is Africa’s first AI driven service that aims to connect AI-based startups with potential investors and venture capitalists.
- Graphene-based memristor is ideal for artificial neural networks, say researcherson November 16, 2020 at 8:58 am
ANNs are networks of artificial neurons that influence each other via synapses. The strength of the influence between neurons is called the synaptic weight, which can change during the learning ...
- Research identifies 'volume control' in the brain that supports learning and memoryon November 10, 2020 at 1:25 pm
A "molecular volume knob" regulating electrical signals in the brain helps with learning and memory, according to a Dartmouth study. The molecular system controls the width of electrical signals ...
- Scientists uncover secrets to designing brain-like deviceson November 10, 2020 at 1:01 pm
To create devices that mimic what occurs in our brain's neurons and synapses, researchers need to overcome a fundamental molecular engineering challenge: how to design devices that exhibit ...
via Bing News