Liquid-gated membrane filtration system improves industrial wastewater purification and saves energy
Filtering and treating water, both for human consumption and to clean industrial and municipal wastewater, accounts for about 13% of all electricity consumed in the US every year and releases about 290 million metric tons of CO2 into the atmosphere annually – roughly equivalent to the combined weight of every human on Earth.
One of the most common methods of processing water is passing it through a membrane with pores that are sized to filter out particles that are larger than water molecules. However, these membranes are susceptible to “fouling,” or clogging by the very materials they are designed to filter out, necessitating more electricity to force the water through a partially clogged membrane and frequent membrane replacement, both of which increase water treatment costs.
New research from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University and collaborators at Northeastern University and the University of Waterloo demonstrates that the Wyss’ liquid-gated membranes (LGMs) filter nanoclay particles out of water with twofold higher efficiency, nearly threefold longer time-to-foul, and a reduction in the pressure required for filtration over conventional membranes, offering a solution that could reduce the cost and electricity consumption of high-impact industrial processes such as oil and gas drilling. The study is reported in APL Materials.
“This is the first study to demonstrate that LGMs can achieve sustained filtration in settings similar to those found in heavy industry, and it provides insight into how LGMs resist different types of fouling, which could lead to their use in a variety of water processing settings,” said first author Jack Alvarenga, a Research Scientist at the Wyss Institute.
LGMs mimic nature’s use of liquid-filled pores to control the movement of liquids, gases and particles through biological filters using the lowest possible amount of energy, much like the small stomata openings in plants’ leaves allow gases to pass through. Each LGM is coated with a liquid that acts as a reversible gate, filling and sealing its pores in the “closed” state. When pressure is applied to the membrane, the liquid inside the pores is pulled to the sides, creating open, liquid-lined pores that can be tuned to allow the passage of specific liquids or gases, and resist fouling due to the liquid layer’s slippery surface. The use of fluid-lined pores also enables the separation of a target compound from a mixture of different substances, which is common in industrial liquid processing.
The research team decided to test their LGMs on a suspension of bentonite clay in water, as such “nanoclay” solutions mimic the wastewater produced by drilling activities in the oil and gas industry. They infused 25-mm discs of a standard filter membrane with perfluoropolyether, a type of liquid lubricant that has been used in the aerospace industry for over 30 years, to convert them into LGMs. They then placed the membranes under pressure to draw water through the pores but leave the nanoclay particles behind, and compared the performance of untreated membranes to LGMs.
The untreated membranes displayed signs of nanoclay fouling much more quickly than the LGMs, and the LGMs were able to filter water three times longer than the standard membranes before requiring a “backwash” procedure to remove particles that had accumulated on the membrane. Less frequent backwashing could translate to a reduction in the use of cleaning chemicals and energy required to pump backwash water, and improve the filtration rate in industrial water treatment settings.
While the LGMs did eventually experience fouling, they displayed a 60% reduction in the amount of nanoclay that accumulated within their structure during filtration, which is known as “irreversible fouling” because it is not removed by backwashing. This advantage gives LGMs a longer lifespan and makes more of the filtrate recoverable for alternate uses. Additionally, the LGMs required 16% less pressure to initiate the filtration process, reflecting further energy savings.
“LGMs have the potential for use in industries as diverse as food and beverage processing, biopharmaceutical manufacturing, textiles, paper, pulp, chemical, and petrochemical, and could offer improvements in energy use and efficiency across a wide swath of industrial applications,” said corresponding author Joanna Aizenberg, Ph.D., who is a Founding Core Faculty member of the Wyss Institute and the Amy Smith Berylson Professor of Material Sciences at Harvard’s John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS).
The team’s next steps for the research include larger-scale pilot studies with industry partners, longer-term operation of the LGMs, and filtering even more complex mixtures of substances. These studies will provide insight into the commercial viability of LGMs for different applications, and how long they would last in a number of use cases.
“The concept of using a liquid to help filter other liquids, while perhaps not obvious to us, is prevalent in nature. It’s wonderful to see how leveraging nature’s innovation in this manner can potentially lead to huge energy savings,” said Wyss Founding Director Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., who is also the Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School and the Vascular Biology Program at Boston Children’s Hospital, as well as Professor of Bioengineering at SEAS.
Learn more: Filtering liquids with liquids saves electricity
The Latest on: Filtration system
via Google News
The Latest on: Filtration system
- Worldwide Industry for Hydraulic Filters to 2027 - Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemicon November 27, 2020 at 8:00 am
The "Hydraulic Filter Market Forecast to 2027 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis by Product and End User, and Geography" report has ...
- Optimizing air quality: Canadian architect says China’s building filtration systems are a blueprint for cities everywhereon November 27, 2020 at 6:55 am
Raefer Wallis is at the global forefront of analyzing indoor air quality, and says what he learned in China in filtering smog out from buildings could apply in the pandemic ...
- Archeologists Discover an Advanced Water Filtration System in an Ancient Mayan Cityon November 26, 2020 at 12:19 pm
As the first cities emerged in Mesopotamia thousands of years ago, water systems became critical in order to continually supply growing urban populations. Ancient Romans built giant aqueducts; the ...
- The Worldwide Air Compressor Filter and Compressed Air Dryer Industry is Expected to Reach $10 Billion by 2027 - ResearchAndMarkets.comon November 26, 2020 at 6:08 am
The Global Air Compressor Filter and Compressed Air Dryer market accounted for $5.06 billion in 2019 and is expected to reach $10.08 billion by 2027 growing at a CAGR of 9.0% duri ...
- Open- Versus Closed-Circuit Filtration for Hydraulics Performanceon November 25, 2020 at 10:00 am
Factors to consider when specifying a return line filter system. Selecting the appropriate filtration system when designing a hydraulic circuit is critical for maintaining fluid cleanliness and ...
- Portable Filtration System Market Growth, Trends, Industry Analysis and Forecast - 2025on November 25, 2020 at 3:20 am
The Portable Filtration System size is expected to grow at an annual average of 2.82% during 2019-2025. A portable filtration system is a type of offline filtration device, where fluid can be ...
- Model Filter System Removes Antibiotics from Wastewateron November 20, 2020 at 4:17 pm
RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA, November 18, 2020—A model for an economical filter system that can remove antibiotics from wastewater has been designed by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and University of ...
- Christian Academy installs $100,000 air filtration system at Louisville, New Albany campuseson November 18, 2020 at 9:23 pm
Now, it has added an extra layer of protection: a new high-tech air filtration system in its two largest campuses in Louisville and Indiana. "We've made our buildings safer and healthier places ...
- Days Inn installs AirDog air filtration systemon November 18, 2020 at 9:00 pm
Days Inn by Wyndham Guam revved up its cleaning protocol by equipping each guest room with AirDog, an advanced air filtration system. The hotel also is sanitizing even more thoroughly with Protexus, a ...
via Bing News