A Prebiotic May Alter the Obese Microbiome and Protect Against Osteoarthritis
Bacteria in the gut, known as the gut microbiome, could be the culprit behind arthritis and joint pain that plagues people who are obese, according to a new study published today in JCI Insight.
Osteoarthritis, a common side effect of obesity, is the greatest cause of disability in the US, affecting 31 million people. Sometimes called “wear and tear” arthritis, osteoarthritis in people who are obese was long assumed to simply be a consequence of undue stress on joints. But researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center provide the first evidence that bacteria in the gut – governed by diet – could be the key driving force behind osteoarthritis.
The scientists found that obese mice had more harmful bacteria in their guts compared to lean mice, which caused inflammation throughout their bodies, leading to very rapid joint deterioration. While a common prebiotic supplement did not help the mice shed weight, it completely reversed the other symptoms, making the guts and joints of obese mice indistinguishable from lean mice.
What a Western, High Fat Diet Can Do
The URMC team, led by Michael Zuscik, Ph.D., associate professor of Orthopaedics in the Center for Musculoskeletal Research (CMSR), Robert Mooney, Ph.D., professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and Steven Gill, Ph.D., associate professor of Microbiology and Immunology, fed mice a high fat diet akin to a Western ‘cheeseburger and milkshake’ diet.
Just 12 weeks of the high fat diet made mice obese and diabetic, nearly doubling their body fat percentage compared to mice fed a low fat, healthy diet. Their colons were dominated by pro-inflammatory bacteria, and almost completely lacked certain beneficial, probiotic bacteria, like the common yogurt additive Bifidobacteria.
The changes in the gut microbiomes of the mice coincided with signs of body-wide inflammation, including in their knees where the researchers induced osteoarthritis with a meniscal tear, a common athletic injury known to cause osteoarthritis. Compared to lean mice, osteoarthritis progressed much more quickly in the obese mice, with nearly all of their cartilage disappearing within 12 weeks of the tear.
“Cartilage is both a cushion and lubricant, supporting friction-free joint movements,” said Zuscik. “When you lose that, it’s bone on bone, rock on rock. It’s the end of the line and you have to replace the whole joint. Preventing that from happening is what we, as osteoarthritis researchers, strive to do – to keep that cartilage.”
Can You Eat Your Cake and Protect Your Joints, Too?
Surprisingly, the effects of obesity on gut bacteria, inflammation, and osteoarthritis were completely prevented when the high fat diet of obese mice was supplemented with a common prebiotic, called oligofructose. The knee cartilage of obese mice who ate the oligofructose supplement was indistinguishable from that of the lean mice.
Prebiotics like oligofructose cannot be digested by rodents or humans, but they are welcome treats for certain types of beneficial gut bacteria, like Bifidobacteria. Colonies of those bacteria chowed down and grew, taking over the guts of obese mice and crowding out bad actors, like pro-inflammatory bacteria. This, in turn, decreased systemic inflammation and slowed cartilage breakdown in the mice’s osteoarthritic knees.
Oligofructose even made the obese mice less diabetic, but there was one thing the dietary supplement didn’t change: body weight.
Obese mice who were given oligofructose remained obese, bearing the same load on their joints, yet their joints were healthier. Just reducing inflammation was enough to protect joint cartilage from degeneration, supporting the idea that inflammation – not biomechanical forces – drive osteoarthritis and joint degeneration.
“That reinforces the idea that osteoarthritis is another secondary complication of obesity – just like diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, which all have inflammation as part of their cause,” said Mooney. “Perhaps, they all share a similar root, and the microbiome might be that common root.”
Before You Head to the Vitamin Shop
Though there are parallels between mouse and human microbiomes, the bacteria that protected mice from obesity-related osteoarthritis may differ from the bacteria that could help humans. Zuscik, Mooney and Gill aim to collaborate with researchers in the Military and Veteran Microbiome: Consortium for Research and Educationat the U.S. Department of Veteran’s Affairs to move this research into humans.
The team hopes to compare veterans who have obesity-related osteoarthritis to those who don’t to further identify the connections between gut microbes and joint health. They also hope to test whether prebiotic or probiotic supplements that shape the gut microbiome can have similar effects in vets suffering from osteoarthritis as they did in mice.
“There are no treatments that can slow progression of osteoarthritis – and definitely nothing reverses it,” said first author Eric Schott, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellow in the CMSR and soon-to-be clinical research scientist at Solarea Bio, Inc. “But this study sets the stage to develop therapies that target the microbiome and actually treat the disease.”
The Latest on: Gut microbiome
via Google News
The Latest on: Gut microbiome
- Engineered honeybee gut bacteria trick attackers into self-destructingon January 30, 2020 at 11:10 am
This gut-microbe technique would need to work in the complexity of a full hive. And the protective bacteria would also need to work within a full bee gut microbiome, the collection of bacteria and ...
- You’re Not All Human: The Wonder of Gut Microbeson January 30, 2020 at 10:51 am
Our partners, the finely tuned collection of bacteria, archaea and fungi collectively known as the microbiome, are not just along for the ride. They also hold an exquisite power that we are only ...
- Gut bacteria could shape your personaon January 30, 2020 at 5:08 am
A new study from Oxford University, published in the journal Human Microbiome, has linked gut bacteria strains and diversity with people’s personalities. That might seem outlandish; after all ...
- Highlights from studies on the gut microbiomeon January 29, 2020 at 7:14 am
A study of a pair of 1,000-strong cohorts has strengthened the link between the community of microorganisms that live in the gut and mental health. Jeroen Raes at the Catholic University of Leuven, ...
- Could the gut microbiome be linked to autism?on January 29, 2020 at 7:13 am
these findings are driving researchers to probe the links between gut microbes and autism symptoms — and to begin testing ASD treatments that repopulate the gut microbiome from scratch. John Cryan, a ...
- Simple ways to support your gut healthon January 29, 2020 at 5:38 am
When we talk about gut health, we're really talking about the microorganisms living in your digestive tract; in other words, your gut microbiome. While many microbes benefit our health, others can ...
- Oxford study explores links between personality and the gut microbiomeon January 28, 2020 at 8:12 pm
A new study out of Oxford University is suggesting there is a strong link between individual personality traits and gut microbiome composition. The research does not claim gut bacteria directly ...
- The North America human microbiome market is expected to reach US$ 446.39 Mn in 2025 from US$ 113.88 in 2017on January 28, 2020 at 4:02 pm
The North America human microbiome market is expected to reach US$ 446.39 Mn in 2025 from US$ 113.88 in 2017. The market is estimated to grow with a CAGR of 21.5% from 2018-2025. The growth of the ...
- Bad to the bone: Specific gut bacterium impairs normal skeletal growth and maturationon January 28, 2020 at 11:58 am
Microbes are often seen as pathogens that cause disease, but the picture is actually more complex than that limited view. The gut microbiome, which is the collection of microorganisms that colonize ...
via Bing News