New technique offers precise, durable control over tiny mirrors or stages.
Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. They’ve found a wide variety of applications in today’s consumer electronics, but their moving parts can wear out over time as a result of friction.
A new approach developed by researchers at MIT could offer a new way of making movable parts with no solid connections between the pieces, potentially eliminating a major source of wear and failure.
The new system uses a layer of liquid droplets to support a tiny, movable platform, which essentially floats on top of the droplets. The droplets can be water or some other fluid, and the precise movements of the platform can be controlled electrically, through a system that can alter the dimensions of the droplets to raise, lower, and tilt the platform.
The new findings are reported in a paper in Applied Physics Letters, co-authored by Daniel Preston, an MIT graduate student; Evelyn Wang, the Gail E. Kendall Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering; and five others.
Preston explains that the new system could be used to make devices such as stages for microscope specimens. The focus of the microscope could be controlled by raising or lowering the stage, which would involve changing the shapes of supporting liquid droplets.
The system works by altering the way the droplets interact with the surface below them, governed by a characteristic known as the contact angle. This angle is a measure of how steep the edge of the droplet is at the point where it meets the surface. On hydrophilic, or water-attracting, surfaces, droplets spread out nearly flat, producing a very small contact angle, while hydrophobic, or water-repelling, surfaces cause droplets to be nearly spherical, barely touching the surface, with very large contact angles. On certain kinds of dielectric surfaces, these qualities can be “tuned” across that whole range by simply varying a voltage applied to the surface.
As the surface gets more hydrophobic and the droplets get rounder, their tops rise farther from the surface, thus raising the platform — in these tests, a thin sheet of copper — that floats on them. By selectively changing different droplets by different amounts, the platform can also be selectively tilted. This could be used, for example, to change the angle of a mirrored surface in order to aim a laser beam, Preston says. “There are a lot of experiments that use lasers, that could really benefit from a way to make these small-scale movements.”
The new system could be used to make devices such as stages for microscope specimens. The focus of the microscope could be controlled by raising or lowering the stage, which would involve changing the shapes of supporting liquid droplets. (Image: Daniel Preston/Device Research Lab)
In order to maintain the positioning of the droplets rather than letting them slide around, the team treated the underside of the floating platform. They made the overall surface hydrophobic, but with small circles of hydrophilic material. That way, all the droplets are securely “pinned” to those water-attracting surfaces, keeping the platform securely in position.
In the group’s initial test device, the vertical positioning can be controlled to within a precision of 10 microns, or millionths of a meter, over a range of motion of 130 microns.
MEMS devices, Preston says, “often fail when there’s a solid-solid contact that wears out, or just gets stuck. At these very small scales, things break down easily.”
While the basic technology behind the alteration of droplet shapes on a surface is not a new idea, Preston says, “nobody has used it to move a stage, without any solid-solid contact. The real innovation here is being able to move a stage up and down, and change its angle, without any solid material connections.”
In principle, it would be possible to use a large array of electrodes that could be adjusted to move a platform across a surface in precise ways, in addition to up and down. For example, it could be used for “lab on a chip” applications, where a biological sample could be mounted on the platform and then moved around from one test site to another on the microchip.
He says the system is relatively simple to implement and that it would be possible to develop it for specific real-world application fairly rapidly. “It depends how motivated people are,” he says. “But I don’t see any huge barriers to large-scale use. I think it could be done within a year.”
“Controlled movements of a stage in microscale are difficult, because the miniature versions of the familiar motors and gear mechanisms do not exist, and if they existed, they would be too weak and frictional, respectively,” says Chang-Jin Kim, a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at the University of California at Los Angeles, who was not involved in this research. “Since this challenge is rather fundamental, it is only logical (albeit exotic) to use liquid droplets as a mechanical element,” he says. “There are numerous questions remaining before this stage becomes practical, but this is a good start proving the main design concept.”
“This approach is simpler and hence is expected to provide a significant cost benefit over existing techniques in practical applications,” says Prosenjit Sen, an assistant professor at the Centre for Nano Science and Engineering at the Indian Institute of Science, who also was not involved in this work. “The use of droplet supports additionally provides some degree of vibration isolation, which is not possible in all-solid stages.”
Receive an email update when we add a new MEMS article.
The Latest on: Microelectromechanical systems
via Google News
The Latest on: Microelectromechanical systems
- Medical MEMS Market to Surpass US$ 13.6 Billion Threshold by 2025 backed by Product Innovation and Strategicon March 23, 2020 at 1:43 am
Coherent Market Insights added most up-to-date research on "Medical Micro-electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Market" to its huge collection of research reports. The research analysis is a superb ...
- Pressure Sensor Market Worth $23.6 Billion by 2024on March 20, 2020 at 6:31 am
The pressure sensor market is projected to grow from USD 17.4 billion in 2019 to USD 23.6 billion by 2024, recording a CAGR of 6.3%. This press release was orginally distributed by SBWire Northrook, ...
- Global MEMS Market Opportunities to 2025 - Increasing Popularity of IoT in Semiconductors, Rising Adoption of Automation in Industries & Homeson March 19, 2020 at 11:00 am
/PRNewswire/ -- The "MEMS Market - Growth, Trends, and Forecast (2020-2025)" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. The ...
- MEMS Packaging for High Volume Productson March 19, 2020 at 9:51 am
Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems, or MEMS, is an enabling technology. It merges the versatility of semiconductor technology with the functionality of mechanical structures at a scale that opens ...
- Apple Invents Optical Systems for Mixed Reality HMDs & Smartglasses that Include Microprojectorson March 19, 2020 at 4:56 am
The display system may include reflective displays such as liquid-crystal-on-silicon displays, microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) displays (sometimes referred to as digital micromirror devices), or ...
- Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Market Emerging Opportunities, Growing Demand and Significant Trends by 2027on March 18, 2020 at 4:18 am
VALLEY COTTAGE, N.Y. - Micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is a semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs), which combines mechanical and electrical properties of silicon on a single chip. These MEMS ...
- Global IoT Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) Market (2020 to 2025) - Assessment of Applications and Industry Verticals - ResearchAndMarkets.comon March 16, 2020 at 7:12 pm
Market by Components, Processor Type, OS, Segment, and Industry Verticals 2020 - 2025" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. This research provides an in-depth assessment of the ...
- Gas Sensor Innovations Enable New Markets to Come Says IDTechExon March 13, 2020 at 5:17 pm
and screen-printing techniques open the door to miniaturised gas sensors and enable the integration of such gas sensors into many consumer devices, such as mobile phones and wearable devices (as ...
- Microelectromechanical Systems Microphones Market Is Changing Drastically? What If History Is Any Guide 2020-2025 | Knowles, Goertek, AAC etc.on March 12, 2020 at 10:44 pm
REPORTS MONITOR,13 March, 2020 :The Research Report on Microelectromechanical Systems Microphones market is a Skillful and Deep Analysis of the Present Situation and Challenges. Experts have studied ...
via Bing News