Failure of the immune system during blood poisoning (sepsis) can be reversed by a specific sugar. This restores the ability of immune cells to respond effectively to infections.
This week, researchers from Radboud University and Radboudumc published an article on this topic in Cell. These insights can lead to improved treatment of sepsis.
Sepsis is a life threatening complication during infections that occurs when the immune system is unable to gain control of the infection-causing microorganism. Afterwards, the immune system of many sepsis patients (30%-40%) becomes compromised. This can continue for several weeks to several months. As a result, the immune system can no longer respond to new infections, and sepsis patients have a high risk of additional complications and death due to a second infection.
In an article that was published on 17 November in the journal Cell, the molecular biologist Henk Stunnenberg of Radboud University, in cooperation with internist-infectiologist Mihai Netea and other colleagues at Radboudumc, shows that this immune paralysis can be reversed. This is good news for sepsis patients, for whom treatments are currently lacking in efficiency.
In developed countries, each year approximately 2 to 30 people in every 10000 get sepsis. In the Netherlands, an estimated annual 9000 patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with severe sepsis. Sepsis can lead to serious, permanent complications, and 20% of the sepsis patients die in the ICU.
The role of sugars
In the bloodstream, monocytes – a type of white blood cell – play a key role in the defense against infections. Monocytes can become macrophages, which remove harmful invaders. In 2014, the Nijmegen researchers showed that differentiation of monocytes into macrophages can be controlled by the environment. Monocytes that are exposed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a molecule from the outer cell membrane of specific bacteria, mature into macrophages with a greatly reduced capacity to fend off foreign cells. This reflects sepsis-induced immunosuppression. The opposite occurs upon exposure to beta glucan, a sugar found in fungal cell walls.
At the molecular level, Stunnenberg then looked at the epigenetic setting of these different types of macrophages. The epigenome is involved in regulating gene expression; it varies by cell type and person and can change due to nutrition, stress and illness.
As a result, he discovered one of the “control switches” of the immune system that is driven by a sugar, beta-glucan. “By adding beta-glucan to blood samples of trial subjects with a disabled immune system, the macrophages were re-activated”.
Time for a clinical trial
Stunnenberg tested the effects of beta glucan in blood in the laboratory. “A clinical trial with patients is an obvious step for the near future. We could begin with blood samples of people who have been admitted to the ICU with sepsis” says Mihai Netea.
Now that the researchers have an indication of how they can reactivate a disabled immune system, they also hope to determine how they can temper an overactive system. Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatism, or inflammatory disorders such as Crohn’s disease, are the result of an overactive immune system.
Learn more: Compromised immune system can be re-activated
The Latest on: Compromised immune system
via Google News
The Latest on: Compromised immune system
- Twins overcome leukemia to lead Stafford High into state golf tourneyon October 14, 2019 at 6:35 pm
Two separate bouts with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia—culminating with bone marrow transplants in 2010—left the Hardings with extremely compromised immune systems, and consequently, limited ...
- Dog Wart Removal: Step-by-Step Guideon October 12, 2019 at 9:27 am
This is an antioxidant supplement that can be given to a dog to help boost their immune system, allowing it to be better able to fight of the papillomavirus that is causing the warts. Warts in dogs ...
- What Can Cyberdefenses Learn from the Human Immune System?on October 8, 2019 at 1:53 pm
Think of the biological response that instinctively pulls your hand away from a hot stove or protects your immune system from a virus, but in this case ... these measures can detect the attack and act ...
- Amplyx Inks Novartis Deal for Another Compromised-Immune System Drugon September 17, 2019 at 5:03 am
Amplyx Pharmaceuticals, which is testing a new type of drug against life-threatening infections acquired by patients with compromised immune systems, has acquired the rights to another drug that could ...
- I Have a Compromised Immune System—I Rely on Herd Immunity to Liveon August 26, 2019 at 4:06 am
Put it this way: If the immune system is a car, Edelman is essentially driving around the world without a windshield. And then there’s this: Not only does Edelman’s compromised immune system make her ...
- Microbiome Species that Keep Mice Lean or Obese Are Balanced by Immune Systemon July 26, 2019 at 6:11 am
The studies, reported in Science, found that immune-compromised mice with a lack of IgA production ... Multiple studies have focused on the role of the immune system in metabolic disease, and in ...
- Selma Blair reveals shaved head and compromised immune system after MS treatmenton July 25, 2019 at 10:31 am
The Hollywood actress, who was diagnosed with MS last year, said her immune system is compromised for the “next three months at least”, and that her health is the “best gift” she could give to her son ...
via Bing News