The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has recently published the first five adverse outcome pathways (AOP), three of which have been developed by the JRC. The AOPs are novel knowledge management tools in toxicology and are useful for supporting risk assessment to human health. They are also valuable for helping to avoid animal testing through the use of alternative methods.
An adverse outcome pathway, or AOP, is a highly structured way of describing a toxicological process which can lead to an adverse health effect in humans or wildlife, caused by an unsafe exposure to a chemical substance. Essentially an AOP tells a toxicological story in terms of a logical sequence of causally-linked ‘key events’ that occur at different levels of biological organisation, from perturbations at the molecular scale up to effects occurring in a whole organism or a population. The AOPs developed by the JRC, now published by OECD, relate to chemical-induced liver fibrosis, aspects of neurotoxicity in adults, and certain neurotoxicological effects that can be caused during human development.
AOP development process
The AOP framework has been developed through an extensive international collaboration between scientists, regulators and policy-makers with the primary goal of making mechanistic toxicological knowledge more readily available to support safety assessment decisions. AOPs are essential in the process of shifting from traditional animal testing to new non-animal approaches that are based on the combination of in vitro methods and computational modelling. The AOPs are available in the new OECD Series on Adverse Outcome Pathways. The development process followed the relevant OECD guidance.
At the OECD, the Extended Advisory Group for Molecular Screening and Toxicogenomics (co-chaired by the JRC on behalf of the EU) manages the development of AOPs which undergo a series of expert reviews before being submitted for endorsement to the Working Group of National Coordinators for the Test Guidelines Programme (WNT) and the Task Force for Hazard Assessment. Although the AOPs developed until now have addressed chemical toxicity, the approach also lends itself to describing the mechanistic basis to potential adverse effects caused by nanomaterials, as demonstrated very recently by the JRC.
AOP Knowledge Base
The JRC has also partnered with the OECD and the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop the publically accessible AOP Knowledge Base. This key resource facilitates the scientific crowdsourcing and on-line peer review foreseen in the AOP development process and allows an AOP to continue to evolve as understanding of the underlying science grows. Once an AOP reaches a certain level of maturity, it is versioned as a document and published in the new OECD series to encourage its utilisation in non-animal species-relevant approaches to regulatory safety assessment.
This novel knowledge management framework, which is already transforming the world of toxicology, has the potential to penetrate other fields such as biomedical research, where effective translation of mechanistic understanding into application is central to innovation and progress.
The Latest on: Non-animal testing methods
via Google News
The Latest on: Non-animal testing methods
- In Vitro Toxicity Testing Market 2019| Outlook, Opportunity and Demand Analysis Report By 2024 - MRE Reporton July 19, 2019 at 11:12 am
The industry is divided by method which includes Cellular Assays ... Browse Full Report: https://www.marketresearchengine.com/in-vitro-toxicity-testing-market Globally, shifting trend of non-animal ... […]
- Animal testing on dogs increases by 634 procedures a year in the UKon July 18, 2019 at 6:17 am
rather than the paltry 3 per cent of the UK annual research spend that non-animal methods receive at present.' Frances Rawle, director of policy, ethics and governance at the Medical Research Council, ... […]
- IIVS & partners win contract from EC to develop training for non-animal testing methodson July 17, 2019 at 2:14 pm
July 16, 2019, Gaithersburg, MD - The Institute for In Vitro Sciences (IIVS) is pleased to announce it is part of a winning consortium, headed by SYRCLE (the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory ... […]
- UF’s dark history of animal testingon July 11, 2019 at 8:18 am
More importantly, there are viable alternatives to animal testing. Non-animal tests that use human cell-based tests (vitro methods) and computer models (silico methods) are more applicable to humans. ... […]
- EPA Move to Phase Out Animal Experiments Could Mean the End of Toxics Regulationson July 3, 2019 at 5:14 am
“Dow is a leader in non-animal testing methods,” Deziel wrote to Beck in July 2017. “We want to engage on this issue in as helpful way as possible.” Beck met with Deziel and other Dow ... […]
- Food, drug and product testing on animals is cruelon June 7, 2019 at 2:11 am
There are many non-animal test methods that can be used instead of animal testing. Not only are these tests more likely to work on humans, they also can be cheaper and faster. I think animal testing ... […]
- European partnership supports IIVS training of Chinese scientists in non-animal testson May 9, 2019 at 6:24 am
"We are proud to have the support of EPAA for our training program(s) which are designed to build proficiency and capacity in non-animal test methods in China," states Erin Hill, President of IIVS. ... […]
- What Are the Alternatives to Animal Testing?on May 4, 2019 at 6:19 am
"In theory, non-animal tests could be much cheaper and much ... I would vote for a combination of computational and experimental methods." So, are there alternatives to animal testing? The short ... […]
- China's acceptance of certain non-animal testing methods for the regulation of cosmeticson April 3, 2019 at 9:00 am
Gaithersburg, MD - April 3, 2019 - The Institute for In Vitro Sciences (IIVS) applauds China's National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) for their acceptance of certain non-animal (alternative) ... […]
via Bing News