Stronger, lighter, smarter materials are projected payoff
Additive manufacturing techniques featuring atomic precision could one day create materials with Legos flexibility and Terminator toughness, according to researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
In a review paper published in ACS Nano, Olga Ovchinnikova and colleagues provide an overview of existing paths to 3-D materials, but the ultimate goal is to create and customize material at the atomic scale. Material would be assembled atom by atom, much like children can use Legos to build a car or castle brick by brick. This concept, known as directed matter, could lead to virtually perfect materials and products because many limitations of conventional manufacturing techniques would be eliminated.
“Being able to assemble matter atom by atom in 3-D will enable us to design materials that are stronger and lighter, more robust in extreme environments and provide economical solutions for energy, chemistry and informatics,” Ovchinnikova said.
Fundamentally, directed matter eliminates the need to remove unwanted material by lithography, etching or other traditional methods. These processes have served society well, researchers noted, but the next generation of materials and products require a new approach.
“For the vast majority of recorded history, material transformation was limited to objects visible to the naked eye and patterned using hand-held tools,” the researchers wrote. “We can admire the prowess of the rice grain writing, or fine engraving on a prized sword blade, but only two to three orders of magnitude separate these masterpieces from Stone Age technology.”
Now, with the ability to direct matter with atomic precision, the payoff could be quantum computers, cell phones with more data storage and longer intervals between charging, higher efficiency solar cells, and stronger and less expensive lightweight materials.
“It’s actually difficult to predict where this could go and how this technology could change our lives, but we intend to find out,” Ovchinnikova said.
By using computation and modeling, researchers can precisely conceive, predict, create and control electrical and other properties of a material instead of having to compromise. Lead author Stephen Jesse noted that the directed matter approach builds on decades of research and uses instruments originally designed to examine materials to fabricate new ones with sub-10-nanometer (10 billionths of a meter) feature resolution.
For example, the transmission electron microscope, developed in the 1930s, has allowed single-atom imaging, chemical strain imaging and picometer-level structural mapping. Since its inception, however, the beam matter interaction had to be managed to prevent “beam damage,” a hindrance to fundamental studies, the researchers said.
“However, this interaction, combined with imaging of electron – and recently ion – microscopy can be used as a basis for a next generation of nanofabrication tools,” Jesse said.
The paper provides summaries of several other alternatives for atomically precise fabrication of 3-D materials based on electron and ion beams, including focused electron beam-induced processing from gas precursors and liquid precursors.
Learn more: Directed matter
The Latest on: Directed material 3D printing
via Google News
The Latest on: Directed material 3D printing
- 3D Printing Graphene Oxide Hydrogels with Direct Ink Writing for Microsupercapacitorson October 8, 2019 at 3:55 am
For improving capacity, active materials must be more powerfully loaded with increased amounts for each electrode. 3D printing can be used here as it has shown not only versatility in such ...
- Anisoprint: Anistropy as Advantage in Carbon Fiber 3D Printingon October 7, 2019 at 4:56 am
And while many other firms are slowly filling the space with their own unique processes for 3D printing with composites, there may be no other more direct competitor than Anisoprint ... such as carbon ...
- Stress, strain and deformation of poly-lactic acid filament deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate woven fabric through 3D printing processon October 4, 2019 at 2:14 am
Although direct deposition of polymeric materials onto textiles through 3D printing is a great technique used more and more to develop smart textiles, one of the main challenges is to demonstrate ...
- University of California: 3D Printing with Magnetics & Hexaferrite Materialson September 30, 2019 at 2:28 am
“3D printing of this composite with poling will make direct printing of magnetic components ... along with other materials: “A class of smart materials known as magnetorheological elastomer ...
- Breakthrough material for direct digital production of plastic parts | IDTechEx Research Articleon September 27, 2019 at 9:16 am
This results in parts produced the same day versus weeks required with conventional tool-based approaches. For more information see the IDTechEx report on 3D Printing Materials 2019-2029: Technology ...
- 3D Systems Unveils Breakthrough Material to Enable Direct Digital Production of Plastic Partson September 24, 2019 at 1:13 am
In customer testing of a variety of parts, using the Figure 4 system and the new production black material delivered a part in hand on average up to 4X faster (including print and cure time), compared ...
- 3D Systems Unveils Breakthrough Material to Enable Direct Digital Production of Plastic Partson September 24, 2019 at 1:05 am
ROCK HILL, S.C., Sept. 24, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Today, 3D Systems (NYSE:DDD) unveiled Figure 4 Production Black 10 (PRO-BLK 10) - a revolutionary production material for additive manufacturing ...
- What is polymer directed energy deposition (DED) for 3D printing and how can it benefit you?on July 26, 2019 at 1:57 pm
Dr. Natalie Rudolph, Vice President of Research and Development, AREVO For almost a decade now, Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been one of the fastest growing areas in manufacturing. This growth has ...
- 3D molding and direct laser writing prints nanostructures from multiple materials at onceon July 23, 2019 at 5:00 pm
The technique can print complex nanostructures from up to five different materials that include ... a process called “in-situ direct laser writing” and work published earlier this year. The ...
- SBIR Phase II: Increasing Maker Manufacturing through 3D Printing with Reclaimed Plastic & Direct Drive Pellet Extrusionon April 15, 2019 at 5:00 pm
With domain expertise in large-scale 3D FFF printing, re:3D proposes to evolve ... prior work conducting validation and materials testing in Phase I, prior work modifying direct drive recyclebots for ...
via Bing News