Scientists have succeeded in generating a new type of embryonic stem cell that carries a single copy of the human genome, instead of the two copies typically found in normal stem cells. These are the first human cells that are known to be capable of cell division with just one copy of the parent cell’s genome.
The scientists, from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute (NYSCF), reported their findings in the journal Nature. Since the stem cells were a genetic match to the egg cell donor, they could be used to develop cell-based therapies for diseases such as blindness, diabetes, or other conditions in which genetically identical cells offer a therapeutic advantage. Because their genetic content is equivalent to germ cells, they might also be useful for reproductive purposes.
Scientists from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute (NYSCF) have succeeded in generating a new type of embryonic stem cell that carries a single copy of the human genome, instead of the two copies typically found in normal stem cells. The scientists reported their findings today in the journal Nature.
The stem cells described in this paper are the first human cells that are known to be capable of cell division with just one copy of the parent cell’s genome.
Human cells are considered ‘diploid’ because they inherit two sets of chromosomes, 46 in total, 23 from the mother and 23 from the father. The only exceptions are reproductive (egg and sperm) cells, known as ‘haploid’ cells because they contain a single set of 23 chromosomes. These haploid cells cannot divide to make more eggs and sperm.
Previous efforts to generate embryonic stem cells using human egg cells had resulted in diploid stem cells. In this study, the scientists triggered unfertilized human egg cells into dividing. They then highlighted the DNA with a fluorescent dye and isolated the haploid stem cells, which were scattered among the more populous diploid cells.
The researchers showed that these haploid stem cells were pluripotent—meaning they were able to differentiate into many other cell types, including nerve, heart, and pancreatic cells—while retaining a single set of chromosomes.
“This study has given us a new type of human stem cell that will have an important impact on human genetic and medical research,” said Nissim Benvenisty, MD, PhD, Director of the Azrieli Center for Stem Cells and Genetic Research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and principal co-author of the study. “These cells will provide researchers with a novel tool for improving our understanding of human development, and the reasons why we reproduce sexually, instead of from a single parent.”
The researchers were also able to show that by virtue of having just a single copy of a gene to target, haploid human cells may constitute a powerful tool for genetic screens. Being able to affect single-copy genes in haploid human stem cells has the potential to facilitate genetic analysis in biomedical fields such as cancer research, precision and regenerative medicine.
“One of the greatest advantages of using haploid human cells is that it is much easier to edit their genes,” explained Ido Sagi, the PhD student who led the research at the Azrieli Center for Stem Cells and Genetic Research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In diploid cells, detecting the biological effects of a single-copy mutation is difficult, because the other copy is normal and serves as “backup.”
Since the stem cells described in this study were a genetic match to the egg cell donor, they could also be used to develop cell-based therapies for diseases such as blindness, diabetes, or other conditions in which genetically identical cells offer a therapeutic advantage. Because their genetic content is equivalent to germ cells, they might also be useful for reproductive purposes.
“This work is an outstanding example of how collaborations between different institutions, on different continents, can solve fundamental problems in biomedicine,” said Dieter Egli, PhD, principal co-author of the study, and Assistant Professor of Developmental Cell Biology in Pediatrics at Columbia University Medical Center and a Senior Research Fellow at the NYSCF Research Institute and a NYSCF-Robertson Investigator.
The Latest on: Haploid human stem cells
via Google News
The Latest on: Haploid human stem cells
- Genetically Modified Food - Latest News and Research Updateson June 23, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Medindia provides you with the latest news and research breakthroughs on Genetically Modified Food. Please find ... senior author Carl Jun Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells can be Used to Produce ...
- The Stages of Early Embryonic Developmenton June 17, 2020 at 8:18 am
The initial growth stages of multi-cellular organisms start with a zygote cell, which then undergoes fast cell division to form the initial cell cluster, or ‘blastula’. This rapid division of cells is ...
- Knock Out, Knock In, Knock Down — Genetically Manipulated Mice and the Nobel Prizeon June 10, 2020 at 5:00 pm
The gamete fuses with another haploid ... model of human disease: the molecular phenotype of the Lesch–Nyhan syndrome was recapitulated by injecting blastocysts with embryonic stem cells bearing ...
- p53’s Multiple Roles Are Acquired during Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiationon June 1, 2020 at 1:17 pm
The p53 gene is extremely important in cell ... stem cell differentiation. Melvin L. DePamphilis, PhD, section chief of Eukaryotic DNA Replication at the National Institute of Child Health & Human ...
- Cell reproduction dogma challengedon May 21, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Beginning with a diploid germ cell (an oogonium in females or a spermatogonium in males), it yields haploid gametes (oocytes in females or spermatozoa in males). The union of an oocyte and a ...
- Loss of heterozygosity of essential genes represents a widespread class of potential cancer vulnerabilitieson May 19, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Hundreds to thousands of non-driver genes undergo loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events per tumor, generating discrete differences between tumor and normal cells ... of haploid human cell lines ...
- Hui Yangon May 19, 2020 at 8:15 am
When he was in high school in southern China, a teacher told him, “The 21st century is the century of life sciences,” says Hui Yang ... androgenetic haploid stem cells, but he found the ...
- Division and differentiation in human cellson October 16, 2019 at 10:29 am
Germline cells are ... Diploid cells have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. They can also divide bymeiosis to produce haploid gametes. The nucleus of a germline stem cell undergoes two divisions ...
- Bone Marrow Transplanton October 23, 2017 at 4:26 am
Other donors for allogeneic bone marrow transplants may include: A parent. A haploid-identical ... bone marrow. The stem cells are tested, typed, counted, and frozen until they are needed for a ...
- Reproduction test questionson August 5, 2017 at 11:56 pm
The diagram shows the reproductive system of a human female ... and structure 3 is the uterus. Egg cells are diploid and sperm cells and zygotes are haploid Egg cells and zygotes are haploid ...
via Bing News