A Unified Microbiome Initiative to accelerate microbiome research would unlock new insights and speed translation of discoveries into numerous potential technologies for health, industry, and the environment
A consortium of 48 scientists from 50 institutions in the United States — including Pamela Silver, Ph.D., a Core Faculty member at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University — are calling for a Unified Microbiome Initiative that would span national cross-institutional and cross-governmental agency support. The group, called the Unified Microbiome Initiative Consortium (UMIC), envisions that a coordinated effort would drive forward cutting edge microbiome research, enabling breakthrough advances across medicine, ecosystem management, sustainable energy and production of commodities. Their proposal was published online in the journal Science on October 28.
Microbial life forms including viruses, bacteria and fungi are the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They have shaped our evolutionary origins for billions of years and continue to have widespread impact on the planet, its environment and the species inhabiting it. Together, they make up microbiomes that influence each other, the environment, and the host organisms that these microbial communities thrive in. The UMIC foresees that the microbiomes populating our planet and its many diverse species and environments could be leveraged through genetic engineering for applications that improve the greater good, and that many milestones could be reached on this front within ten years.
“Microbes are everywhere. Therefore understanding microbiomes, whether they be the ones that live in and on our bodies or the ones in the environment, is essential to understanding life,” said Silver, who in addition to being one of the faculty leaders on the Wyss Institute’s Synthetic Biology platform, is also the Elliot T. and Onie H. Adams Professor of Biochemistry and Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and a founding member of the Department of Systems Biology at HMS.
The UMIC consists of leading microbiologists, ecologists, physical scientists, engineers, and scientists in the emerging field of synthetic biology. The group coalesced during a series of coordinated but separately convened meetings held by The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and The Kavli Foundation. The proposal in Science got its roots from the UMIC’s efforts to identify challenges and opportunities in microbiome research as well as their strategic recommendations for accelerating discovery that emerged from these meetings.
“Understanding how [microbiomes] work might hold the key to advances as diverse as fighting antibiotic resistance and autoimmune diseases, reclaiming ravaged farmland, reducing fertilizer and pesticide use, and converting sunlight into useful chemicals,” said Jeff F. Miller, Ph.D., Director of the California NanoSystems Institute and corresponding author of the Science paper.
By metabolic processes, microbes synthesize countless different molecules, which through genetic engineering could lead to colonies of microbial “workers” being used for the sustainable synthesis of pharmaceuticals, materials and chemical commodities. Genetically engineered microbes could also produce biofuels through metabolic processes and conversion of solar energy into liquid fuel, according to work already underway by Silver at the Wyss Institute and HMS.
Microbes also play a vital role in balancing biogeochemical processes, such as removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The interactions between soil, plant roots and microbes play an important role in plant health and crop yield.
Furthermore, the microbiomes in our gastrointestinal tracts regulate wide-ranging physiological, metabolic, immunologic, cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric traits. Understanding and manipulating human microbiomes could be key to managing physical and mental health. Silver and her team have already begun developing several potential avenues for leveraging gut microbes to improve health. In collaboration with Wyss Core Faculty member James Collins, Ph.D., Silver has engineered genetically programmed bacterial “reporters”that can detect and record conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. And, working with Wyss Institute Founding Director Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., and Wyss Institute Senior Staff Scientist Jeffrey Way, Ph.D., Silver is developing consortia of synthetic microbes that could be used to treat gastrointestinal illness.
Her expertise and experience in these emerging areas of synthetic biology has enabled Silver to contribute her thought leadership as a member of the UMIC to how the proposed Unified Microbiome Initiative could integrate focus areas to accelerate microbiome research.
“I’m interested in engineering microbes as a way to interrogate their behavior,” said Silver. “The purpose of this unified initiative is to determine what are the big questions we have about the microbiome and what are the specific technologies we need in order to investigate those questions.”
Some of the big questions the group hopes to address through an organized coalition include understanding how microbes assemble into communities and what makes them resilient or resistant to perturbation, how genes in the microbiome interact with one another, which genes in the microbiome are associated with which organisms, as well as how we can beneficially harness the microbiomes of humans, animals, plants and environments.
The Latest on: Microbiomes
via Google News
The Latest on: Microbiomes
- Calgary researchers zero in on gut bacteria as potent cancer fighteron August 13, 2020 at 11:29 am
Employing intestinal bacteria could boost the effectiveness of some cancer treatment four-fold, say researchers at the University of Calgary. A lead scientist in an ongoing study said Thursday her ...
- Landmark paper calls for need to develop the world's microbiome biobanking infrastructureon August 13, 2020 at 8:12 am
A team of scientists led by CABI's Dr. Matthew Ryan has outlined a series of challenges and opportunities presented in a necessary review of how microbiomes—biological communities including bacteria, ...
- Meta-analysis of cheese microbiomes highlights contributions to multiple aspects of qualityon August 13, 2020 at 8:09 am
High-resolution meta-analysis of cheese microbiomes and corresponding volatilomes provide technological and ecological insights for improving cheese production.
- Fecal microbiota transplantation from patients with autoimmune encephalitis modulates Th17 response and relevant behaviors in miceon August 11, 2020 at 2:29 am
Here, we aim to characterize the gut microbiota of a large cohort of treatment-naïve anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis patients relative to that of healthy controls (HCs).
- Are you too clean? We ask the experts how to save our microbiomes while still staying safeon August 7, 2020 at 11:11 pm
- Biodiversity loss could be making us sick — here’s whyon August 6, 2020 at 10:22 am
The inner ecosystem Our gut, skin and airways harbor distinct microbiomes — vast networks of microbes that exist in different environments. The human gut alone harbors up to 100 trillion microbes, ...
- Biodiversity Loss Could Be Hurting Our Gut Healthon August 4, 2020 at 6:08 pm
Some scientists now think this is linked to biodiversity loss – the ongoing depletion of the varied forms of life on Earth. The rate at which different species go extinct is currently a thousand times ...
- Gut Microbes & Diet Change the Behavior of a Cancer-Driving Proteinon August 3, 2020 at 3:50 pm
The findings have been reported in Nature. "Scientists are beginning to pay more and more attention to the role gut microbiomes play in our health: both their positive effects and, in this case, their ...
- Suzanne L Ishaqon July 31, 2020 at 7:20 am
The majority of my work focuses on host-associated microbiomes and understanding lifestyle circumstances which select for communities. I want to know how we can recover a stable microbial community in ...
via Bing News