Following an exhaustive, ten-year effort, scientists at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and the University of Washington have identified 238 genes that, when removed, increase the replicative lifespan of S. cerevisiae yeast cells. This is the first time 189 of these genes have been linked to aging. These results provide new genomic targets that could eventually be used to improve human health.
The research was published online on October 8th in the journal Cell Metabolism.
“This study looks at aging in the context of the whole genome and gives us a more complete picture of what aging is,” said Brian Kennedy, PhD, lead author and the Buck Institute’s president and CEO. “It also sets up a framework to define the entire network that influences aging in this organism.”
The Kennedy lab collaborated closely with Matt Kaeberlein, PhD, a professor in the Department of Pathology at the University of Washington, and his team. The two groups began the painstaking process of examining 4,698 yeast strains, each with a single gene deletion. To determine which strains yielded increased lifespan, the researchers counted yeast cells, logging how many daughter cells a mother produced before it stopped dividing.
“We had a small needle attached to a microscope, and we used that needle to tease out the daughter cells away from the mother every time it divided and then count how many times the mother cells divides,” said Dr. Kennedy. “We had several microscopes running all the time.”
These efforts produced a wealth of information about how different genes, and their associated pathways, modulate aging in yeast. Deleting a gene called LOS1 produced particularly stunning results. LOS1 helps relocate transfer RNA (tRNA), which bring amino acids to ribosomes to build proteins. LOS1 is influenced by mTOR, a genetic master switch long associated with caloric restriction and increased lifespan. In turn, LOS1 influences Gcn4, a gene that helps govern DNA damage control.
“Calorie restriction has been known to extend lifespan for a long time.” said Dr. Kennedy. “The DNA damage response is linked to aging as well. LOS1 may be connecting these different processes.”
A number of the age-extending genes the team identified are also found inC. elegans roundworms, indicating these mechanisms are conserved in higher organisms. In fact, many of the anti-aging pathways associated with yeast genes are maintained all the way to humans.
The research produced another positive result: exposing emerging scientists to advanced lab techniques, many for the first time.
“This project has been a great way to get new researchers into the field,” said Dr. Kennedy. “We did a lot of the work by recruiting undergraduates, teaching them how to do experiments and how dedicated you have to be to get results. After a year of dissecting yeast cells, we move them into other projects.”
Though quite extensive, this research is only part of a larger process to map the relationships between all the gene pathways that govern aging, illuminating this critical process in yeast, worms and mammals. The researchers hope that, ultimately, these efforts will produce new therapies.
“Almost half of the genes we found that affect aging are conserved in mammals,” said Dr. Kennedy. “In theory, any of these factors could be therapeutic targets to extend healthspan. What we have to do now is figure out which ones are amenable to targeting.”
Read more: Mapping the Genes that Increase Lifespan
The Latest on: Increase lifespan
via Google News
The Latest on: Increase lifespan
- Carjackings in Chicago increase 134% in 2020, police sayon December 4, 2020 at 5:36 pm
The city of Chicago has seen the number of carjackings more than double so far in 2020. Police say carjackings are often crimes of opportunity, and the opportunities appear to be on a dramatic rise.
- Biotech, Life Sciences Dominate Friday’s IPO Paradeon December 4, 2020 at 3:08 pm
Biotech has emerged as one of the busiest sectors of the IPO market. As of Dec. 4, 70 biotech IPOs had raised nearly $19 billion so far this year, according to Dealogic. That is nearly four times the ...
- Tina Turner Says Buddhism 'Literally Saved My Life' After Suicide Attempton December 4, 2020 at 2:59 pm
Tina Turner is shedding light on her path to peace in her new book, Happiness Becomes You: A Guide to Changing Your Life for Good.
- AM Best Affirms Credit Ratings of Fidelity & Guaranty Life Holdings, Inc. and Its Key Life/Health Subsidiarieson December 4, 2020 at 2:04 pm
AM Best has affirmed the Financial Strength Rating of A- (Excellent) and the Long-Term Issuer Credit Ratings (Long-Term ICR) of “a-” of the key life/health subsidiaries of Fidelity & Guaranty Life ...
- ‘That Little Baby Had His Whole Life in Front of Him': Toddler Slain in DCon December 4, 2020 at 12:21 pm
Carmelo Duncan barely lived before he died. Carmelo, just 15 months old, was fatally shot Wednesday night in D.C., police say. At least 10 shots hit the car his father was driving. Police are calling ...
- 3 Key Areas of Focus to Make Golf a Game for Lifeon December 4, 2020 at 11:44 am
PGA Coach Thor Parrish shares just how important it is to focus on your nutrition & fitness to improve your golf game.
- Living near more bird species can increase life satisfaction as much as having a pay riseon December 4, 2020 at 10:00 am
Experts from Germany cross-referenced survey data on the life satisfaction and socio-economics of thousands of Europeans with their exposure to nature.
- Why Is Sun Life (SLF) Up 1.8% Since Last Earnings Report?on December 4, 2020 at 8:31 am
I t has been about a month since the last earnings report for Sun Life (SLF). Shares have added about 1.8% in that time frame, underperforming the S&P 500. Will the recent positiv ...
- Searching for quarantine escapes, Tennesseans turn to 'van life' during pandemicon December 4, 2020 at 5:13 am
A desire for pandemic escapes proved beneficial to Tennessee campervan rental and customization companies as the van life movement gained popularity.
- Low testosterone can increase risk of severe COVID-19 in maleson December 4, 2020 at 4:30 am
Researchers from the USA and Saudi Arabia describe the direct correlation between testosterone levels, inflammatory cytokines, disease progression, and worse outcomes in male COVID-19 patients.
via Bing News