Following an exhaustive, ten-year effort, scientists at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and the University of Washington have identified 238 genes that, when removed, increase the replicative lifespan of S. cerevisiae yeast cells. This is the first time 189 of these genes have been linked to aging. These results provide new genomic targets that could eventually be used to improve human health.
The research was published online on October 8th in the journal Cell Metabolism.
“This study looks at aging in the context of the whole genome and gives us a more complete picture of what aging is,” said Brian Kennedy, PhD, lead author and the Buck Institute’s president and CEO. “It also sets up a framework to define the entire network that influences aging in this organism.”
The Kennedy lab collaborated closely with Matt Kaeberlein, PhD, a professor in the Department of Pathology at the University of Washington, and his team. The two groups began the painstaking process of examining 4,698 yeast strains, each with a single gene deletion. To determine which strains yielded increased lifespan, the researchers counted yeast cells, logging how many daughter cells a mother produced before it stopped dividing.
“We had a small needle attached to a microscope, and we used that needle to tease out the daughter cells away from the mother every time it divided and then count how many times the mother cells divides,” said Dr. Kennedy. “We had several microscopes running all the time.”
These efforts produced a wealth of information about how different genes, and their associated pathways, modulate aging in yeast. Deleting a gene called LOS1 produced particularly stunning results. LOS1 helps relocate transfer RNA (tRNA), which bring amino acids to ribosomes to build proteins. LOS1 is influenced by mTOR, a genetic master switch long associated with caloric restriction and increased lifespan. In turn, LOS1 influences Gcn4, a gene that helps govern DNA damage control.
“Calorie restriction has been known to extend lifespan for a long time.” said Dr. Kennedy. “The DNA damage response is linked to aging as well. LOS1 may be connecting these different processes.”
A number of the age-extending genes the team identified are also found inC. elegans roundworms, indicating these mechanisms are conserved in higher organisms. In fact, many of the anti-aging pathways associated with yeast genes are maintained all the way to humans.
The research produced another positive result: exposing emerging scientists to advanced lab techniques, many for the first time.
“This project has been a great way to get new researchers into the field,” said Dr. Kennedy. “We did a lot of the work by recruiting undergraduates, teaching them how to do experiments and how dedicated you have to be to get results. After a year of dissecting yeast cells, we move them into other projects.”
Though quite extensive, this research is only part of a larger process to map the relationships between all the gene pathways that govern aging, illuminating this critical process in yeast, worms and mammals. The researchers hope that, ultimately, these efforts will produce new therapies.
“Almost half of the genes we found that affect aging are conserved in mammals,” said Dr. Kennedy. “In theory, any of these factors could be therapeutic targets to extend healthspan. What we have to do now is figure out which ones are amenable to targeting.”
Read more: Mapping the Genes that Increase Lifespan
The Latest on: Increase lifespan
via Google News
The Latest on: Increase lifespan
- How much is a life worth? Maine raised that number to $750,000on November 15, 2019 at 12:36 pm
“I believe that Steven’s life has much more value than that,” she said ... Soltan said Moonen’s proposal would, if approved, significantly increase potential awards by juries in some cases, perhaps to ...
- ‘Govt Planning to Increase Insurance Limit on Banks Deposits,’ Says Nirmala Sitharamanon November 15, 2019 at 7:26 am
Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman: Finance Ministry is considering proposals to increase the insurance limit from current ... subsequent deaths of many agitators who had deposited their life savings ...
- StageZero Life Sciences Announces Q3 2019 Progress Updateon November 15, 2019 at 3:45 am
StageZero Life Sciences is scaling-up the Company's telehealth program to meet the growing ... Once the platform is complete, StageZero will significantly increase its investment to attract more ...
- Singer Ethan Sak Releases New Single With Powerful Message "Live Another Day" to Increase Suicide Awarenesson November 15, 2019 at 1:15 am
With a predicted increase of self-inflicted deaths in 2020 to one in every 20 seconds, suicide prevention and postvention become a need to address issue. Saving a life can be as simple as answering a ...
- Voting on the Future of Life on Earthon November 15, 2019 at 12:57 am
At the 2015 Paris conference on climate change, in response to the cautious tone of the IPCC, the world’s political leaders agreed that they would try very hard to hold the average global temperature ...
- What is it like to get an autism diagnosis later in life?on November 14, 2019 at 11:50 pm
Why the increase? Before discussing this research paper ... In addition to these features, the DSM-III specified that these symptoms must develop within the first 30 months of life. Although these ...
- Zyla Life Sciences (ZCOR) CEO Todd Smith on Q3 2019 Results - Earnings Call Transcripton November 14, 2019 at 5:45 pm
Zyla Life Sciences (OTCQX:ZCOR) Q3 2019 Earnings Conference Call November 14 ... The transaction enabled us to substantially increase our net product sales, while maintaining similar operating ...
- City plans to increase insurance premium tax for indoor aquatic centeron November 14, 2019 at 5:25 pm
To raise money, a new city ordinance will implement a 1% increase to the city's insurance premium tax. The new ordinance would raise the insurance premium tax from 6% to 7%. The tax goes into effect ...
- Zyla Life Sciences Reports Third Quarter 2019 Financial Resultson November 14, 2019 at 4:02 pm
an increase of 175% over the 2018 third quarter, due to the expanded product portfolio -- WAYNE, Pa., Nov. 14, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Zyla Life Sciences (ZCOR) ("Zyla" or the "Company"), a ...
- Depression symptoms increase over last year of lifeon November 13, 2019 at 12:38 pm
(Reuters Health) - Many people experience worsening depression symptoms over their final year of life, and a U.S. study suggests that women, younger adults and poor people may be especially vulnerable ...
via Bing News