In research that could lead to protective probiotics to fight the “chytrid” fungus that has been decimating amphibian populations worldwide, Jenifer Walke, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, and her collaborators have grown bacterial species from the skin microbiome of four species of amphibians.
The research appears July 10 in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.
In the study, the investigators swabbed the four species, all of which inhabit Virginia. They grew, or cultured what bacteria they could from the swabs, and sequenced those cultures. They also sequenced all of the bacteria inhabiting the skin of each amphibian using next-generation sequencing. Next, they compared the cultured bacterial sequences to species which data suggests are dominant on amphibian skin.
Most of the bacteria that could be grown, or “cultured,” were dominant species, although some rare species were culturable. “Dominant bacteria might be likely to contribute important functions, such as disease resistance, to their host,” said Walke. “At least some species are known to produce antifungals, and we consider these to be strong candidates for amphibian probiotics.”
While the investigators were unable to culture some presumptive dominant species, Walke suggests that merely tweaking culturing conditions might make it possible to grow some of these species.
The investigators were able to grow less than ten percent of the bacterial species in the amphibian skin microbiome. Moreover, “we found that amphibian species have distinct microbial communities, and this pattern held for both the cultured and the sequenced bacteria,” said Walke.
“The research is important because many amphibians play critical roles in ecosystems, for example, controlling populations of harmful insects, including those that carry human diseases, such as malaria,” said Walke. “Additionally, what we are learning about the role of microbes in amphibian disease resistance has applications to other species, such as white-nose syndrome in bats, and fungal disease in snakes, many of which control rodents that carry human diseases.
Amphibians include frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians. The latter are limbless burrowing creatures of the southern hemisphere, and are not (yet) known to be infected with chytrid fungus. That fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is currently known to infect nearly 300 species of amphibians, and has caused around 100 extinctions, according to one estimate.
B. dendrobatidis’ spread is driven largely by commercial trade in amphibians, 100 million of which are shipped annually. And now a new species of chytrid fungus is killing salamanders in Europe. “There is great concern that this species is going to arrive in America and decimate the amazingly diverse salamander communities in the eastern US,” said Walke.
The Latest on: Chytrid
via Google News
The Latest on: Chytrid
- How Amphibian Die-Offs Worsened Malaria Outbreakson December 2, 2020 at 7:54 pm
Researchers have found evidence that links the amphibian die-offs in the 1980s to a significant increase in malaria cases. The study shows how a change in the ecosystem can direct ...
- Amphibian die-offs worsened malaria outbreaks in Central Americaon December 2, 2020 at 9:38 am
The global collapse of frogs and other amphibians due to the amphibian chytrid fungus exacerbated malaria outbreaks in Costa Rica and Panama during the 1990s and 2000s, according to new research.
- Amphibian die-offs worsened malaria outbreaks in Central Americaon December 2, 2020 at 9:23 am
WASHINGTON--The global collapse of frogs and other amphibians due to the amphibian chytrid fungus exacerbated malaria outbreaks in Costa Rica and Panama during the 1990s and 2000s, according to ...
- Critically endangered Baw Baw frogs fitted with radio transmitters to track their movementon November 28, 2020 at 5:07 pm
There are fewer than 1,000 Baw Baw frogs living in the wild, but scientists hope this experimental approach will save them from extinction.
- Riveting radio for scientists after 50 frogs freed on Mt Baw Bawon November 28, 2020 at 3:47 pm
Fewer than 1000 of the frogs live on the chilly, high-altitude Baw Baw plateau in eastern Victoria, where climate change and the highly-contagious chytrid fungus have taken a heavy toll on their ...
- Divergent impacts of warming weather on wildlife disease risk across climateson November 20, 2020 at 12:05 am
For example, when conditions are cool, amphibians from warm climates experience greater burdens of infection by chytrid fungus than hosts from cool regions. Cohen et al. undertook a global metanalysis ...
- Climate change alters disease riskson November 19, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Climate change appears to be provoking changes in the patterns and intensity of infectious diseases. For example, when conditions are cool, amphibians from warm climates experience greater burdens of ...
- Consider the red eft, a magical little creatureon November 5, 2020 at 2:59 pm
The biggest conservation issue around newts is the emergence of the salamander chytrid fungus as a potential threat to North American salamanders, said Kubel. Salamander chytrid came from Asia and ...
- Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Sampling in Arizona and Mexicoon April 16, 2017 at 9:12 am
chiricahuensis) and Sonoran tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsi) are species of interest for sampling and monitoring for chytrid infections. This work is being done in connection with the ...
via Bing News