The possibilities for personalised vaccines in all types of cancer are revealed today in a lecture from Dr Harpreet Singh at the ESMO Symposium on Immuno-Oncology 2014 in Geneva, Switzerland.
“One of the biggest hurdles in cancer immunotherapy is the discovery of appropriate cancer targets that can be recognised by T-cells,” said Singh, who is scientific coordinator of the EU-funded GAPVAC phase I trial which is testing personalised vaccines in glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive brain cancer. “In the GAPVAC trial we will treat glioblastoma patients with vaccines that are ideal for each patient because they contain personalised antigens.”1
For all patients in the GAPVAC study, researchers will identify genes expressed in the tumour, peptides presented on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) receptor (i.e. peptides which will be seen by T-cells), cancer specific mutations, and the ability of the immune system to mount a response to certain antigens. Based on this information, two vaccines, called actively personalised vaccines (APVACs), will be constructed and administered following conventional surgery.
The first vaccine will be prepared from a warehouse of 72 targets previously identified by the researchers as relevant for treatment in glioblastoma. These peptides have been manufactured and put on the shelf ready to be vaccinated in patients. Patients will be given a cocktail of the peptides they express and which their immune system can mount a response to.
Singh said: “A patient may express 20 of these 72 targets on their tumour, for example. If we find that the patient’s immune system can mount responses to 5 of the 20 targets, we mix the 5 peptides and give them to the patient. We mix the peptides off the shelf but the cocktail is changed for each patient because it is matched to their biomarkers.”
The second vaccine is synthesised de novo based on a mutated peptide expressed in the tumour of the patient. Singh said: “That peptide is not in our warehouse because it just occurs in this one single patient. The patient receives APVAC-1 and APVAC-2 in a highly personalised fashion in a way that I think has never been done for any patient.”
He added: “GAPVAC has two major goals. One is to show that personalised vaccines are feasible, since this is one of the most complicated trials ever done in cancer immunotherapy. The second is to show that we can mount far better biological responses in these patients compared to vaccination with non-personalised antigens.”
Singh’s previous research has shown that vaccination with non-personalised antigens leads to better disease control and longer overall survival in phase I and phase II clinical studies in patients with renal cell cancer.2
Singh said: “For the non-personalised vaccines we used off-the-shelf peptide targets that were shared by many patients with a particular cancer. Using this approach we have successfully vaccinated patients with renal cell cancer, colorectal cancer and glioblastoma.”
He added: “During this research we identified other targets that appeared in very few patients or even, in extreme cases, in a single patient. Often these rarer peptides are of better quality, meaning they are more specifically seen in cancer cells and occur at higher levels. This led us to start developing personalised cancer vaccines which contain the ideal set of targets for one particular patient. We hope they will be even more effective than the off-the-shelf vaccines.”
The Latest on: Personalised Vaccines
via Google News
The Latest on: Personalised Vaccines
- Can blood from coronavirus survivors treat the newly ill?on March 24, 2020 at 8:36 am
WASHINGTON (AP) — Hospitals are gearing up to test if a century-old treatment used to fight off flu and measles outbreaks in the days before vaccines, and tried more recently against SARS and Ebola, ...
- Ology Bioservices Partners Inovio To Make COVID-19 DNA Vaccine - Quick Factson March 24, 2020 at 5:24 am
(RTTNews) - Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc. (INO) is partnering Ology Bioservices Inc. to manufacture Inovio's DNA vaccine (INO-4800) for prevention o ...
- Novavax: Influenza Vaccine NanoFlu Meets Primary Goals In Phase 3 Clinical Trialon March 24, 2020 at 3:21 am
(RTTNews) - Novavax Inc. (NVAX), a late-stage biotechnology company developing vaccines for serious infectious diseases, announced Tuesday positiv ...
- Sanofi's Swiftwater campus joins race for COVID-19 vaccineon March 22, 2020 at 9:43 pm
Clem Lewin, a research executive for Sanofi, has heard the COVID-19 pandemic should peak and start fading by summer. He’s worried about what happens if it doesn’t. Drug and vaccine makers like Sanofi, ...
- A bi-adjuvant nanovaccine that potentiates immunogenicity of neoantigen for combination immunotherapy of colorectal canceron March 18, 2020 at 11:44 am
These authors contributed equally to this work. See allHide authors and affiliations Neoantigen vaccines have been enthusiastically pursued for personalized cancer immunotherapy while vast majority of ...
- Exploring Avenues in Personalized Medical Care...on March 18, 2020 at 2:38 am
ALBANY, New York, March 18, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- A wide assortment of applications of genetic engineering technology, vaccine research, and biologics have helped expand the potential of the red ...
- Race for COVID-19 Vaccine: 7 Questions for Moderna Chairman Noubar Afeyanon March 17, 2020 at 10:03 am
We are not the only ones working on this, this is a whole field called therapeutic vaccines. The reason I bring it up is because we’ve been working on this personalized cancer vaccine program at ...
- Global Personalized Medicine Study, 2018-2028: Focus on Scientific & Commercial Aspects and Profiles of 338 Companies Involvedon March 12, 2020 at 6:13 pm
The "Personalized Medicine - Scientific & Commercial Aspects" report from Jain PharmaBiotech has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. This report describes the latest concepts of ...
- Predictive Oncology Launches AI Vaccine and Drug Platform & Acquires Technologyon March 12, 2020 at 2:27 pm
This morning, Predictive Oncology Inc. (POAI:NASDAQ), which focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) to personalized medicine and drug discovery, announced that "it will launch a new AI ...
- Biotech Virus Rally Draws Over $600 Million in Short Betson March 12, 2020 at 7:44 am
Bets against just two companies working on vaccines for the novel coronavirus topped $603 million this week, according to data from financial analytics firm S3 Partners. Short interest in Inovio ...
via Bing News