Scientists from Case Western Reserve University and University of Kansas Medical Center have restored behavior—in this case, the ability to reach through a narrow opening and grasp food—using a neural prosthesis in a rat model of brain injury.
Ultimately, the team hopes to develop a device that rapidly and substantially improves function after brain injury in humans. There is no such commercial treatment for the 1.5 million Americans, including soldiers in Afghanistan and Iraq, who suffer traumatic brain injuries (TBI), or the nearly 800,000 stroke victims who suffer weakness or paralysis in the United States, annually.
The prosthesis, called a brain-machine-brain interface, is a closed-loop microelectronic system. It records signals from one part of the brain, processes them in real time, and then bridges the injury by stimulating a second part of the brain that had lost connectivity.
“If you use the device to couple activity from one part of the brain to another, is it possible to induce recovery from TBI? That’s the core of this investigation,” said Pedram Mohseni, professor of electrical engineering and computer science at Case Western Reserve, who built the brain prosthesis.
“We found that, yes, it is possible to use a closed-loop neural prosthesis to facilitate repair of a brain injury,” he said.
The researchers tested the prosthesis in a rat model of brain injury in the laboratory of Randolph J. Nudo, professor of molecular and integrative physiology at the University of Kansas. Nudo mapped the rat’s brain and developed the model in which anterior and posterior parts of the brain that control the rat’s forelimbs are disconnected.
Atop each animal’s head, the brain-machine-brain interface is a microchip on a circuit board smaller than a quarter connected to microelectrodes implanted in the two brain regions.
The device amplifies signals, which are called neural action potentials and produced by the neurons in the anterior of the brain. An algorithm separates these signals, recorded as brain spike activity, from noise and other artifacts. With each spike detected, the microchip sends a pulse of electric current to stimulate neurons in the posterior part of the brain, artificially connecting the two brain regions.
Two weeks after the prosthesis had been implanted and run continuously, the rat models using the full closed-loop system had recovered nearly all function lost due to injury, successfully retrieving a food pellet close to 70 percent of the time, or as well as normal, uninjured rats. Rat models that received random stimuli from the device retrieved less than half the pellets and those that received no stimuli retrieved about a quarter of them.
“A question still to be answered is must the implant be left in place for life?” Mohseni said. “Or can it be removed after two months or six months, if and when new connections have been formed in the brain?”
The Latest on: Neural prosthesis
via Google News
The Latest on: Neural prosthesis
- Technology Insight: Future Neuroprosthetic Therapies for Disorders of the Nervous Systemon June 20, 2020 at 5:00 pm
and for the control of prosthetic limbs. The neuroprosthetic approach to restoring these lost functions is based on arrays of microelectrodes implanted into neural tissues, which can 'talk' and ...
- Neural Interface Research Moves Forward, Inside and Outside Silicon Valleyon June 17, 2020 at 5:00 pm
As part of DARPA's Hand Proprioception and Touch Interfaces (HAPTIX) program, Ripple is also developing a myoelectric implant to detect EMG signals for control of the prosthetic hands, and an ...
- The real-life Matrix: MIT researchers reveal interface that can allow a computer to plug into the brainon June 17, 2020 at 5:00 pm
It's a big problem in neural prosthetics,' Anikeeva says. 'They are so stiff, so sharp — when you take a step and the brain moves with respect to the device, you end up scrambling the tissue.' ...
- Technology Insight: Future Neuroprosthetic Therapies for Disorders of the Nervous Systemon June 17, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Another requirement for dexterous control of a biological or prosthetic arm and hand is sensory ... preferably via a neural pathway that is as close to the natural, pre-amputation pathway as ...
- New Prosthetic Hand Provides the Actual Sensation of Touchon June 17, 2020 at 5:00 pm
A recent announcement made at the annual meeting of the Society of Neuroscience revealed that a person was fitted with a neural enabled prosthetic hand (NEPH). This marks the first time a NEPH ...
- Neurons can shift how they process information about motion: studyon June 15, 2020 at 11:57 am
New Rochester research indicates some neurons may be more adept than previously thought in helping you perceive the motion of objects while you move through the world. The findings may have ...
- Neurons can shift how they process information about motionon June 15, 2020 at 11:50 am
APPLICATIONS FOR NEURAL PROSTHETICS AND BRAIN DISORDERS The research offers important information about the inner workings of the brain and potentially could be used for applications such as ...
- Study: Neurons can shift how they process information about motionon June 15, 2020 at 9:21 am
University of Rochester researchers demonstrate that neurons process motion information by adapting according to the brain's reference frame.
- Neurochip Links Damaged Brain Connectionson June 11, 2020 at 5:00 pm
“We wanted to develop a device that could continuously interact with the brain, 24 hours a day, because we're interested in developing neural prostheses,” explains Andrew Jackson, PhD, who carried out ...
- AI Prosthesis Is Music To Our Earson June 11, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Prostheses are a great help to those who have ... This is done through a TensorFlow-based neural network which analyses the ultrasound data to determine which finger the user is trying to move.
via Bing News