Injection of nanoparticle has proven effective in mouse models, researchers say
Researchers at Tel Aviv University have developed a novel nano-vaccine for melanoma, the most aggressive type of skin cancer. Their innovative approach has so far proven effective in preventing the development of melanoma in mouse models and in treating primary tumors and metastases that result from melanoma.
The focus of the research is on a nanoparticle that serves as the basis for the new vaccine. The study was led by Prof. Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, chair of the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and head of the Laboratory for Cancer Research and Nanomedicine at TAU’s Sackler Faculty of Medicine, and Prof. Helena Florindo of the University of Lisbon while on sabbatical at the Satchi-Fainaro lab at TAU; it was conducted by Dr. Anna Scomparin of Prof. Satchi-Fainaro’s TAU lab and postdoctoral fellow Dr. João Conniot. The results were published on August 5 in Nature Nanotechnology.
Melanoma develops in the skin cells that produce melanin or skin pigment. “The war against cancer in general, and melanoma in particular, has advanced over the years through a variety of treatment modalities, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy; but the vaccine approach, which has proven so effective against various viral diseases, has not materialized yet against cancer,” says Prof. Satchi-Fainaro. “In our study, we have shown for the first time that it is possible to produce an effective nano-vaccine against melanoma and to sensitize the immune system to immunotherapies.”
The researchers harnessed tiny particles, about 170 nanometers in size, made of a biodegradable polymer. Within each particle, they “packed” two peptides — short chains of amino acids, which are expressed in melanoma cells. They then injected the nanoparticles (or “nano-vaccines”) into a mouse model bearing melanoma.
“The nanoparticles acted just like known vaccines for viral-borne diseases,” Prof. Satchi-Fainaro explains. “They stimulated the immune system of the mice, and the immune cells learned to identify and attack cells containing the two peptides — that is, the melanoma cells. This meant that, from now on, the immune system of the immunized mice will attack melanoma cells if and when they appear in the body.”
The researchers then examined the effectiveness of the vaccine under three different conditions.
First, the vaccine proved to have prophylactic effects. The vaccine was injected into healthy mice, and an injection of melanoma cells followed. “The result was that the mice did not get sick, meaning that the vaccine prevented the disease,” says Prof. Satchi-Fainaro.
Second, the nanoparticle was used to treat a primary tumor: A combination of the innovative vaccine and immunotherapy treatments was tested on melanoma model mice. The synergistic treatment significantly delayed the progression of the disease and greatly extended the lives of all treated mice.
Finally, the researchers validated their approach on tissues taken from patients with melanoma brain metastases. This suggested that the nano-vaccine can be used to treat brain metastases as well. Mouse models with late-stage melanoma brain metastases had already been established following excision of the primary melanoma lesion, mimicking the clinical setting. Research on image-guided surgery of primary melanoma using smart probes was published last year by Prof. Satchi-Fainaro’s lab.
“Our research opens the door to a completely new approach — the vaccine approach — for effective treatment of melanoma, even in the most advanced stages of the disease,” concludes Prof. Satchi-Fainaro. “We believe that our platform may also be suitable for other types of cancer and that our work is a solid foundation for the development of other cancer nano-vaccines.”
The Latest on: Melanoma
via Google News
The Latest on: Melanoma
- TNFα-signal and cAMP-mediated signals oppositely regulate melanoma- associated ganglioside GD3 synthase gene in human melanocyteson October 14, 2019 at 2:12 am
The results of an IKK inhibitor indicate the possibility that TNFα induces GD3 synthase gene expression via NF-κB signaling in melanocytes. When melanoma cells were treated by these factors, no ...
- Expert second opinion improves reliability of melanoma diagnoseson October 11, 2019 at 8:01 am
Getting a reliable diagnosis of melanoma can be a significant challenge for pathologists. The diagnosis relies on a pathologist's visual assessment of biopsy material on microscopic slides, which can ...
- Melanoma Stages: Prognosis, Survival Rates and Treatmenton October 10, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Melanoma is one of the most serious forms of skin cancer. In early stages, it may be treated through relatively simple surgery, but advanced stages can be lethal. The National Cancer Institute’s ...
- Two new grants to support researchers to better understand, manage metastasis of melanomaon October 10, 2019 at 2:41 pm
The American Cancer Society (ACS) and Melanoma Research Alliance (MRA) have selected two new promising projects in a second round of funding under a partnership between ACS & MRA. The first grants ...
- Metastatic Melanoma Drug Market Application, Manufacturer, Sales, Segmentation and Forecast 2019 to 2026on October 9, 2019 at 9:18 am
Oct 09, 2019 (Market Prediction via COMTEX) -- In 2018, the Metastatic Melanoma Drug Market revenue was around US$ XX Mn and the Market share was XX%, and it will be projected to reach US$ XX Mn and ...
- Melanoma Single-Cell Transcriptional Analysis Predicts Drug Responseon October 9, 2019 at 5:21 am
A new study from investigators at the Moffitt Cancer Center’s Donald A. Adam Melanoma and Skin Cancer Center of Excellence have just released findings from a new study revealing that differences at ...
- Head, Neck Melanoma Cases Rising Among Younger People: Here’s Whyon October 8, 2019 at 3:40 pm
Share on Pinterest Experts say excessive sunlight exposure is a major reason for melanoma cases in younger people. Here’s what you can do to reduce your risk. Getty Images Researchers say the number ...
- Intraocular Dissemination of Uveal Melanoma Cells Following Radiotherapy: Evolving Management Over the Past Decadeon October 8, 2019 at 2:38 pm
Walter, MD, MSc; Amir Mohsenin, MD, PhD; Christina L. Decatur, BS; George J. Harocopos, MD; Sander Dubovy, MD; J. William Harbour, MD Four patients underwent treatment for progressive intraocular ...
- Melanoma variability at the single-cell level predicts treatment responseson October 8, 2019 at 8:49 am
Patients with advanced melanoma have been able to live longer because of several newly approved targeted treatment options, including BRAF and MEK inhibitors. However, patients will often have ...
- ADP secreted by dying melanoma cells mediates chemotaxis and chemokine secretion of macrophages via the purinergic receptor P2Y12on October 7, 2019 at 5:16 am
Melanoma immunotherapy is still not satisfactory due to immunosuppressive cell populations within the tumor stroma. Targeting tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) can help to restore an anti-tumor ...
via Bing News