A study published in The Lancet Oncology establishes for the first time that artificial intelligence can process medical images to extract biological and clinical information.
By designing an algorithm and developing it to analyse CT scan images, medical researchers at Gustave Roussy, CentraleSupélec, Inserm, Paris-Sud University and TheraPanacea (spin-off from CentraleSupélec specialising in artificial intelligence in oncology-radiotherapy and precision medicine) have created a so-called radiomic signature. This signature defines the level of lymphocyte infiltration of a tumour and provides a predictive score for the efficacy of immunotherapy in the patient.
In the future, physicians might thus be able to use imaging to identify biological phenomena in a tumour located in any part of the body without having to perform a biopsy.
Up to now, no marker can accurately identify those patients who will respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy in a situation where only 15 to 30% of patients do respond to such treatment. It is known that the richer the tumour environment is immunologically (presence of lymphocytes) the greater the chance that immunotherapy will be effective, so the researchers have tried to characterise this environment using imaging and correlate this with the patients’ clinical response. Such is the objective of the radiomic signature designed and validated in the study published in The Lancet Oncology.
In this retrospective study, the radiomic signature was captured, developed and validated in 500 patients with solid tumours (all sites) from four independent cohorts. It was validated genomically, histologically and clinically, making it particularly robust.
Using an approach based on machine learning, the team first taught the algorithm to use relevant information extracted from CT scans of patients participating in the MOSCATO* study , which also held tumor genome data. Thus, based solely on images, the algorithm learned to predict what the genome might have revealed about the tumour immune infiltrate, in particular with respect to the presence of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8) in the tumour, and it established a radiomic signature.
This signature was tested and validated in other cohorts including that of TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) thus showing that imaging could predict a biological phenomenon, providing an estimation of the degree of immune infiltration of a tumour.
Then, to test the applicability of this signature in a real situation and correlate it to the efficacy of immunotherapy, it was evaluated using CT scans performed before the start of treatment in patients participating in 5 phase I trials of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. It was found that the patients in whom immunotherapy was effective at 3 and 6 months had higher radiomic scores as did those with better overall survival.
The next clinical study will assess the signature both retrospectively and prospectively, will use larger numbers of patients and will stratify them according to cancer type in order to refine the signature.
This will also employ more sophisticated automatic learning and artificial intelligence algorithms to predict patient response to immunotherapy. To that end, the researchers are intending to integrate data from imaging, molecular biology and tissue analysis. This is the objective of the collaboration between Gustave Roussy, Inserm, Université Paris-Sud, CentraleSupélec and TheraPanacea to identify those patients who are the most likely to respond to treatment, thus improving the efficacy/cost ratio of the treatment.
The Latest on: Artificial intelligence
via Google News
The Latest on: Artificial intelligence
- LexinFintech CEO Speaks at World Economic Forum on Artificial Intelligence on September 19, 2018 at 2:03 am
TIANJIN, China, Sept. 19, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- LexinFintech Holdings Ltd. ("Lexin") (LX), a leading online consumer finance platform for educated young adults in China, attended the World Economic ... […]
- Artificial Intelligence and its Dramatic Effect on Our Lives [Video] on September 19, 2018 at 12:22 am
Jeremy Walker is an entrepreneur and software developer who specializes in building businesses that utilize artificial intelligence in the advancement of medicine and education. Jeremy Walker is ... […]
- Key weapon for closing IoT-era cybersecurity gaps? Artificial intelligence on September 18, 2018 at 11:00 pm
As businesses struggle to combat increasingly sophisticated cybersecurity attacks, the severity of which is exacerbated by both the vanishing IT perimeters in today’s mobile and IoT era, and an acute ... […]
- IBM Debuts Tools to Help Prevent Bias In Artificial Intelligence on September 18, 2018 at 9:02 pm
IBM wants to help companies mitigate the chances that their artificial intelligence technologies unintentionally discriminate against certain groups like women and minorities. The technology giant ... […]
- Do the Benefits of Artificial Intelligence Outweigh the Risks? on September 18, 2018 at 12:52 pm
Towards the end of the second world war, a group of scientists in America working to develop an atomic bomb for the Manhattan Project warned that using the weapon would inevitably lead to a ... […]
- UB launches Artificial Intelligence Institute; hires inaugural director on September 18, 2018 at 11:34 am
The University at Buffalo is launching a new institute dedicated to the study of artificial intelligence. UB's Artificial Intelligence Institute (or UBuffalo.AI) will "explore how to combine machines’ ... […]
- You Might Want Artificial Intelligence Reading Your Next Mammogram on September 18, 2018 at 7:36 am
These are perhaps the most powerful and important four words a woman can hear after a breast-screening visit. X-ray based mammography is an effective screening tool for detecting cancer, but what many ... […]
- Artificial intelligence can transform the economy on September 18, 2018 at 6:39 am
Erik Brynjolfsson is the director of the MIT Initiative on the Digital Economy and co-author, with Andrew McAfee, of “Machine/Platform/Crowd.” Xiang Hui is an assistant professor of marketing at Washi... […]
- Artificial Intelligence To Create 58 Million New Jobs By 2022, Says Report on September 18, 2018 at 5:05 am
Machines and algorithms in the workplace are expected to create 133 million new roles, but cause 75 million jobs to be displaced by 2022 according to a new report from the World Economic Forum (WEF) c... […]
via Bing News