The new technology has applications in nanometer-scale transistors and circuits
Engineers at the University of California, Riverside, have demonstrated prototype devices made of an exotic material that can conduct a current density 50 times greater than conventional copper interconnect technology.
Current density is the amount of electrical current per cross-sectional area at a given point. As transistors in integrated circuits become smaller and smaller, they need higher and higher current densities to perform at the desired level. Most conventional electrical conductors, such as copper, tend to break due to overheating or other factors at high current densities, presenting a barrier to creating increasingly small components.
The electronics industry needs alternatives to silicon and copper that can sustain extremely high current densities at sizes of just a few nanometers.
The advent of graphene resulted in a massive, worldwide effort directed at investigation of other two-dimensional, or 2D, layered materials that would meet the need for nanoscale electronic components that can sustain a high current density. While 2D materials consist of a single layer of atoms, 1D materials consist of individual chains of atoms weakly bound to one another, but their potential for electronics has not been as widely studied.
One can think of 2D materials as thin slices of bread while 1D materials are like spaghetti. Compared to 1D materials, 2D materials seem huge.
A group of researchers led by Alexander A. Balandin, a distinguished professor of electrical and computer engineering in the Marlan and Rosemary Bourns College of Engineering at UC Riverside, discovered that zirconium tritelluride, or ZrTe3, nanoribbons have an exceptionally high current density that far exceeds that of any conventional metals like copper.
The new strategy undertaken by the UC Riverside team pushes research from two-dimensional to one-dimensional materials— an important advance for the future generation of electronics.
“Conventional metals are polycrystalline. They have grain boundaries and surface roughness, which scatter electrons,” Balandin said. “Quasi-one-dimensional materials such as ZrTe3 consist of single-crystal atomic chains in one direction. They do not have grain boundaries and often have atomically smooth surfaces after exfoliation. We attributed the exceptionally high current density in ZrTe3 to the single-crystal nature of quasi-1D materials.”
In principle, such quasi-1D materials could be grown directly into nanowires with a cross-section that corresponds to an individual atomic thread, or chain. In the present study the level of the current sustained by the ZrTe3 quantum wires was higher than reported for any metals or other 1D materials. It almost reaches the current density in carbon nanotubes and graphene.
Electronic devices depend on special wiring to carry information between different parts of a circuit or system. As developers miniaturize devices, their internal parts also must become smaller, and the interconnects that carry information between parts must become smallest of all. Depending on how they are configured, the ZrTe3 nanoribbons could be made into either nanometer-scale local interconnects or device channels for components of the tiniest devices.
The UC Riverside group’s experiments were conducted with nanoribbons that had been sliced from a pre-made sheet of material. Industrial applications need to grow nanoribbon directly on the wafer. This manufacturing process is already under development, and Balandin believes 1D nanomaterials hold possibilities for applications in future electronics.
“The most exciting thing about the quasi-1D materials is that they can be truly synthesized into the channels or interconnects with the ultimately small cross-section of one atomic thread— approximately one nanometer by one nanometer,” Balandin said.
The Latest on: 1D nanomaterials
via Google News
The Latest on: 1D nanomaterials
- Exploring how DNA can enable the rational design of nanomaterials on September 17, 2018 at 6:40 am
Fabrication of 1D systems like nanowires can be used to build out nanocomponents ... In 2008, I became a staff scientist in the Soft and Bio Nanomaterials Group. What is a typical day at the CFN? Ther... […]
- CFN Scientist Spotlight: Dmytro Nykypanchuk Explores How DNA Can Enable the Rational Design of Nanomaterials on September 14, 2018 at 7:42 am
Fabrication of 1D systems like nanowires can be used to build out nanocomponents, which are then assembled into circuits for electrical, optical, or chemical signals. How do you study these DNA hybrid ... […]
- How caged molecules 'rattle and sing' on September 11, 2018 at 7:07 am
Their theoretical method is suitable for screening millions of possible nanomaterials and could improve production ... in a nanotube it was not clear if molecules can only move in one direction (throu... […]
- Researchers discover how caged molecules 'rattle and sing' on September 11, 2018 at 6:51 am
Their theoretical method is suitable for screening millions of possible nanomaterials and could ... was not clear if molecules can only move in one direction (through the tube) or two directions ... […]
- Brain function partly replicated by nanomaterials on July 12, 2018 at 6:30 am
The brain requires surprisingly little energy to adapt to the environment to learn, make ambiguous recognitions, have high recognition ability and intelligence, and perform complex information process... […]
- One-dimensional material packs a powerful punch for next generation electronics on May 1, 2018 at 1:05 pm
Industrial applications need to grow nanoribbon directly on the wafer. This manufacturing process is already under development, and Balandin believes 1D nanomaterials hold possibilities for applicatio... […]
- Wet-chemical synthesis and applications of non-layer structured two-dimensional nanomaterials on February 28, 2015 at 4:00 pm
Non-layer structured nanomaterials with single- or few-layer thickness have two-dimensional sheet-like structures and possess intriguing properties. Recent years have seen major advances in developmen... […]
- Toyota to Use Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials to Advance Vehicle Battery Tech on October 30, 2014 at 6:22 am
To probe molecular structures and track the rapid chemical reactions in these promising batteries, Zhang and colleagues turned to the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN ... anode and cathode—flo... […]
- France toughens laws on nanomaterials in consumer products on January 11, 2013 at 8:04 pm
Nanomaterials are defined as materials making use of tiny nanoparticles, particles which are smaller than 100 nanometres in at least one direction. A nanometre is equal to one billionth of a metre. Pu... […]
via Bing News