Influenza vaccines that better target the influenza surface protein called neuraminidase (NA) could offer broad protection against various influenza virus strains and lessen the severity of illness, according to new research published in Cell.
Current seasonal influenza vaccines mainly target a different, more abundant influenza surface protein called hemagglutinin (HA). However, because influenza vaccines offer varying and sometimes limited protection, scientists are exploring ways to improve vaccine effectiveness. The new research builds on previous studies of NA and was conducted by a team of scientists including investigators from the Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS)program, which is organized and funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.
Investigators analyzed blood samples from people vaccinated against influenza and people diagnosed with either the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus or H3N2 influenza viruses. The volunteers were recruited for this study or had taken part in prior influenza research studies. The analyses indicate that influenza vaccines rarely induce NA-reactive antibodies, whereas natural influenza infection induces these types of antibodies at least as often as they induce HA-reactive antibodies. Additional studies in mice reinforced the human data, indicating that current influenza vaccines do not induce NA-reactive antibodies efficiently.
Additional laboratory experiments show that the NA-reactive antibodies induced during natural influenza infection are broadly reactive, meaning they could potentially protect against diverse strains of influenza. To test this theory, scientists isolated NA-reactive monoclonal antibodies from the H3N2 and H1N1 influenza patients (N2-reactive antibodies and N1-reactive antibodies, respectively). They administered 13 N2-reactive antibodies to mice and subsequently infected the mice with a different H3N2 virus strain. Eleven of the 13 N2-reactive antibodies partially or fully protected the mice. They also administered eight N1-reactive antibodies to mice and subsequently infected the mice with a similar H1N1 virus strain or an H5N1-like virus strain. Four of the eight antibodies completely protected the mice against both virus strains.
The authors note that the findings suggest that influenza vaccines should be optimized to better target NA for broad protection against diverse influenza strains. In this regard, NIAID is supporting research to characterize NA responses in infected and vaccinated individuals and to determine the mechanism of action of NA protection. NIAID also supports “NAction!” a CEIRS working group that identifies knowledge gaps in our understanding of NA and sets NA research priorities for improved influenza vaccines. These efforts contribute to NIAID’s larger plan to develop a universal influenza vaccine—a vaccine that can durably protect all age groups against multiple influenza virus strains.
The Latest on: Influenza
via Google News
The Latest on: Influenza
- Researchers discover influenza virus doesn't replicate equally in all cells on September 19, 2018 at 9:48 am
The seasonal flu is caused by different subtypes of Influenza A virus and typically leads to the death of half a million people each year. In order to better understand this virus and how it ... […]
- New influenza surveillance tool supports communities on September 18, 2018 at 1:04 pm
LAKEVILLE, Minn. — ImageTrend announces influenza tracking using Continuum® software in preparation for the upcoming flu season 1. As each incident report is posted by EMS care providers, Continuum au... […]
- Walk-in influenza vaccination clinic at Putnam County Health Department on September 18, 2018 at 12:30 pm
Walk-in influenza vaccination, 12-4 p.m., Putnam County Health Department, 256 Williamstown Road, Ottawa. Cost: $10 for 18 years and younger; $33 for those 19 and older. Questions call Putnam County H... […]
- Walk-in influenza vaccination clinic at Ottawa Senior Center on September 18, 2018 at 7:31 am
Walk-in influenza vaccination, 9-11:30 a.m., Ottawa Senior Senior, Ottawa. Cost: $10 for 18 years and younger; $33 for those 19 and older. Questions call Putnam County Health Department at 419-523-560... […]
- Why pandemic influenza is so deadly – revealed on September 18, 2018 at 6:41 am
The Spanish flu virus infected a third of the world's population 100 years ago and claimed the lives of up to 100m people. The virus continued to evolve and its descendants went on to cause all ... […]
- James Paxton returns to the Mariners, but still feeling the effects of influenza and pneumonia on September 17, 2018 at 3:23 pm
HOUSTON — James Paxton is back with the Mariners. But when he’ll return to the rotation is still to be determined. After staying in Seattle the last four days because of an illness, Paxton was feeling ... […]
- Last year the influenza was deadly. Here's how you can fight it now on September 17, 2018 at 12:55 pm
Federal health officials are urging people to get vaccinated before the 2018–19 influenza season picks up steam in October. "The 2017–18 season was the first season to be classified as a high severity ... […]
- Inovio develops H3N2 Influenza DNA vaccine on September 17, 2018 at 10:17 am
Inovio Pharmaceuticals (NYSEMKT:INO) announces that its SynCon vaccine approach using a collection of DNA antigens generated broadly protective antibody responses against the most deadly strains ... […]
- Experimental nasal influenza vaccine tested in kids, teens on September 17, 2018 at 9:33 am
An early-stage clinical trial testing the safety and immune-stimulating ability of an experimental nasal influenza vaccine in healthy 9- to 17-year-old children and teens has begun enrolling participa... […]
via Bing News