Making A.I. Systems that See the World as Humans Do
A Northwestern University team developed a new computational model that performs at human levels on a standard intelligence test. This work is an important step toward making artificial intelligence systems that see and understand the world as humans do.
“The model performs in the 75th percentile for American adults, making it better than average,” said Northwestern Engineering’s Ken Forbus. “The problems that are hard for people are also hard for the model, providing additional evidence that its operation is capturing some important properties of human cognition.”
The new computational model is built on CogSketch, an artificial intelligence platform previously developed in Forbus’ laboratory. The platform has the ability to solve visual problems and understand sketches in order to give immediate, interactive feedback. CogSketch also incorporates a computational model of analogy, based on Northwestern psychology professor Dedre Gentner’s structure-mapping theory. (Gentner received the 2016 David E. Rumelhart Prize for her work on this theory.)
Forbus, Walter P. Murphy Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Northwestern’s McCormick School of Engineering, developed the model with Andrew Lovett, a former Northwestern postdoctoral researcher in psychology. Their research was published online this month in the journal Psychological Review.
The ability to solve complex visual problems is one of the hallmarks of human intelligence. Developing artificial intelligence systems that have this ability not only provides new evidence for the importance of symbolic representations and analogy in visual reasoning, but it could potentially shrink the gap between computer and human cognition.
While Forbus and Lovett’s system can be used to model general visual problem-solving phenomena, they specifically tested it on Raven’s Progressive Matrices, a nonverbal standardized test that measures abstract reasoning. All of the test’s problems consist of a matrix with one image missing. The test taker is given six to eight choices with which to best complete the matrix. Forbus and Lovett’s computational model performed better than the average American.
“The Raven’s test is the best existing predictor of what psychologists call ‘fluid intelligence, or the general ability to think abstractly, reason, identify patterns, solve problems, and discern relationships,’” said Lovett, now a researcher at the US Naval Research Laboratory. “Our results suggest that the ability to flexibly use relational representations, comparing and reinterpreting them, is important for fluid intelligence.”
The ability to use and understand sophisticated relational representations is a key to higher-order cognition. Relational representations connect entities and ideas such as “the clock is above the door” or “pressure differences cause water to flow.” These types of comparisons are crucial for making and understanding analogies, which humans use to solve problems, weigh moral dilemmas, and describe the world around them.
“Most artificial intelligence research today concerning vision focuses on recognition, or labeling what is in a scene rather than reasoning about it,” Forbus said. “But recognition is only useful if it supports subsequent reasoning. Our research provides an important step toward understanding visual reasoning more broadly.”
Receive an email update when we add a new ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE article.
The Latest on: Artificial intelligence
via Google News
The Latest on: Artificial intelligence
- Artificial intelligence speeds efforts to develop clean, virtually limitless fusion energy on April 17, 2019 at 2:02 pm
Artificial intelligence (AI), a branch of computer science that is transforming scientific inquiry and industry, could now speed the development of safe, clean and virtually limitless fusion ... […]
- Artificial Intelligence in Transportation Market: Comprehensive study explores Huge Growth| Robert Bosch, Nvidia, ZF Friedrichshafen on April 17, 2019 at 1:56 pm
Apr 17, 2019 (Heraldkeeper via COMTEX) -- HTF MI released a new market study on Global Artificial Intelligence in Transportation Market with 100+ market data Tables, Pie Chat, Graphs & Figures spread ... […]
- DOE announces $20 million for artificial intelligence research on April 17, 2019 at 11:41 am
Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced a total of $20 million in funding for innovative research and development in artificial intelligence (A.I.) and machine learning. DOE's Office of ... […]
- Global Artificial Intelligence Robotics Market May See a Growth Rate of 27.84% and Would Reach the Market Size of USD12.28 Billion by 2023 on April 17, 2019 at 7:35 am
Apr 17, 2019 (AB Digital via COMTEX) -- Growing adoption of automated machinery, as well as Artificial Intelligence (AI), enabled robots in personal use such as commercial applications has propelled ... […]
- Artificial intelligence industry facing a ‘diversity crisis’ because it is overwhelmingly white and male, study finds on April 17, 2019 at 7:30 am
A tech industry teeming with white men is creating biased bots. The underrepresentation of women and people of color across artificial intelligence is causing a “diversity crisis” that is creating ... […]
- Artificial intelligence is on the brink of a 'diversity disaster' on April 17, 2019 at 5:39 am
The lack of diversity within artificial intelligence is pushing the field to a dangerous "tipping point," according to new research from the AI Now Institute. It says that due to an overwhelming ... […]
- Will Chatbots, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Take The Work Out Of Work? on April 17, 2019 at 5:33 am
It’s no surprise that innovation is “taking the work out of work” with chatbots, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. So what’s left? One could say it’s the play aspects of ... […]
- Want To Know How Far Artificial Intelligence Has Come? Just Look At CAPTCHA on April 16, 2019 at 8:12 pm
NPR's Audie Cornish speaks with researcher Jason Polakis about CAPTCHA, the program that tests to see if you are really human, and how far artificial intelligence has come. CORNISH: I'm not a robot. ... […]
- The artificial intelligence field is too white and too male, researchers say on April 16, 2019 at 6:00 pm
The artificial intelligence industry is facing a “diversity crisis,” researchers from the AI Now Institute said in a report released today, raising key questions about the direction of the field. ... […]
via Bing News