Novel noninvasive technique successfully discriminates between prostate cancer and benign disease in proof of principle study, paving the way for easy and early diagnosis, reports The Journal of Urology®
We may soon be able to make easy and early diagnoses of prostate cancer by smell. Investigators in Finland have established that a novel noninvasive technique can detect prostate cancer using an electronic nose. In a proof of principle study, the eNose successfully discriminated between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by “sniffing” urine headspace (the space directly above the urine sample). Results using the eNose are comparable to testing prostate specific antigen (PSA), reports The Journal Of Urology®.
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in males and one of the leading causes of cancer death. The heterogeneity of prostate cancer makes it difficult to diagnose and predict tumor progression. Both of the current cornerstones of diagnosis, i.e. digital rectal examination (DRE) and PSA have limitations, while ultrasound guided biopsies are costly, uncomfortable for the patient, and have a risk of infection. Additionally, significant numbers of diagnosed prostate cancers are of low grade and will not cause symptoms or disease-specific mortality. Therefore, aggressive treatment can lead to decreased quality of life without extending the patient’s life. Thus, there is a need for novel diagnostic tools.
In the 1980s incidental reports of dogs that detected cancer in their owners sparked a number of experimental studies that have since confirmed that trained sniffer dogs can detect cancer. However, variations in the performance of dogs during and between studies have meant that these findings are of limited application. A more promising development is the growth of sensor technology (generally referred to as artificial olfaction) that has led to the invention of numerous new types of olfactory electronic sensors. eNoses are best suited for qualitative analysis of complex gaseous mixtures of molecules, and are routinely used in food and agricultural quality control and military applications.
The eNose used in the current study is a device that consists of a cluster of nonspecific sensors. When the device is exposed to the sample, it produces a profile or a “smell print.” “eNoses have been studied in various medical applications, including early detection of cancer, especially from exhaled air,” says lead investigator Niku KJ. Oksala, MD, PhD, DSc, of the Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Tampere and Department of Vascular Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Finland. “However, exhaled air is a problematic sample material since it requires good cooperation and technique from the patient and immediate analysis, while urine is simple to attain and store, and is therefore more feasible in clinical practice.
Preliminary data suggested that detection of urologic malignancies from urine headspace was possible. Our own preliminary results on prostate cancer cells encouraged us to launch this prospective clinical study.” The ChemPro® 100–eNose (Environics Inc., Mikkeli, Finland) was tested on 50 patients who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer confirmed by biopsy, and 15 patients with BPH. Both groups were scheduled for surgery.
The patients provided urine samples before surgery and those with benign disease also provided samples three months after surgery to be used as a pooled control sample population. Patients with prostate cancer underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, while the benign disease group underwent transurethral resection of prostate. Results with the eNose confirmed that using urine headspace, the eNose is able to discriminate prostate cancer from BPH. The eNose achieved a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 67% and AUC of 42.0. “The performance with the eNose matches that of PSA results in previous literature and the results are achieved rapidly and in a completely noninvasive manner,” comments Dr. Oksala. “PSA is known to correlate positively with prostate volume, which is a potential source of diagnostic error when comparing prostate cancer with benign disease.
According to our current analysis, prostate volume did not affect the eNose results, potentially indicating high specificity of our sensor array to cancer. We also studied whether eNose signal correlates with the size of the tumor. No such correlation was found. Further studies are now warranted to enhance current technology and to identify the molecules behind the distinct odors.”
The Latest on: Electronic Nose
via Google News
The Latest on: Electronic Nose
- Janine Berdin explains why she came out with nose jobon October 11, 2020 at 10:07 pm
Vice was shocked upon learning that the enhancement was done just less than a month ago. He assured Janine that the nose will be more beautiful in the coming days.
- Your View: This year, I will hold my nose and vote against the abortion partyon October 10, 2020 at 3:34 am
We hear how crucial this election is and I agree, and here’s why: In years past, elections didn’t really change our lives much on a daily basis. Sometimes our taxes would go up, sometimes down.
- Court McGee realized he had a broken nose against Carlos Condit so he ‘smashed it straight and kept fighting’on October 5, 2020 at 11:30 am
Court McGee suffered a brutally broken nose this past weekend in a battle against Carlos Condit, but there was no way that was going to take him out of the fight. At the close of the opening round in ...
- Global Electronic Nose (E-Nose) Devices Market 2020 Outlook, Current and Future Industry Landscape Analysis 2025on October 5, 2020 at 4:19 am
Growth 2020-2025 concentrates on factual data, present industry activities, growth opportunities, new product inventions. The report covers the present scenario and the increased prospects (2020-2025) ...
- UFC Holly Holm vs Irene Aldana Fight Island fight night results: Court McGee broken noseon October 3, 2020 at 8:37 pm
During the break before the second round, McGee was spotted sitting down with a shattered nose. From there Condit, the former interim welterweight champion, controlled the final two rounds and ret ...
- The 'Runny Nose' Test For Covid In Kids: What Parents Need To Knowon October 1, 2020 at 10:00 pm
Tim Spector, professor of genetic epidemiology at King’s College London, who helped to developed the Covid Symptom Study App believes children with a runny nose and no other symptoms do not have ...
- McDonald's worker, 21, GLASSED a teacher and her Boots employee friend, 20, broke her nose with a vicious kick in a nightclub row over a man - but pair are spared jailon October 1, 2020 at 2:31 am
McDonald's worker Lesley Herbert, 21, glassed Sarah Wright moments after her ex-colleague threw her to the floor and broke her nose while kicking her in Manchester.
- Exclusive Analysis On Aircraft Nose Craft Market by demanding Key Players like- Safran, UTC, Meggiton September 30, 2020 at 6:02 am
Ltd –:Market.us printed the Latest analysis Report Entitled Global Aircraft Nose Craft Market by Segmentation, Revenue, Growth quantitative relation, makers, Regions-Forecast to 2029 to its ...
- USF gets national recognition for electronic nose that can sniff out coronaviruson September 30, 2020 at 4:33 am
The University of South Florida has created an "electronic nose" that could suss out biochemicals created by Covid-19. That technology has now gotten national attention and will compete in a ...
- 2021 BMW 4-Series Convertible Gets an Awesome Soft Top and a Big Noseon September 29, 2020 at 7:08 pm
The move away from a retractable hard top is actually no loss, and the next-gen 4-series cabriolet is all the prettier for it.
via Bing News