Particles that deliver vaccines directly to mucosal surfaces could defend against many infectious diseases.
Many viruses and bacteria infect humans through mucosal surfaces, such as those in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract and reproductive tract. To help fight these pathogens, scientists are working on vaccines that can establish a front line of defense at mucosal surfaces.
Vaccines can be delivered to the lungs via an aerosol spray, but the lungs often clear away the vaccine before it can provoke an immune response. To overcome that, MIT engineers have developed a new type of nanoparticle that protects the vaccine long enough to generate a strong immune response — not only in the lungs, but also in mucosal surfaces far from the vaccination site, such as the gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts.
Such vaccines could help protect against influenza and other respiratory viruses, or prevent sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, herpes simplex virus and human papilloma virus, says Darrell Irvine, an MIT professor of materials science and engineering and biological engineering and the leader of the research team. He is also exploring use of the particles to deliver cancer vaccines.
“This is a good example of a project where the same technology can be applied in cancer and in infectious disease. It’s a platform technology to deliver a vaccine of interest,” says Irvine, who is a member of MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and the Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT and Harvard University.
Irvine and colleagues describe the nanoparticle vaccine in the Sept. 25 issue of Science Translational Medicine. Lead authors of the paper are recent PhD recipient Adrienne Li and former MIT postdoc James Moon.
Only a handful of mucosal vaccines have been approved for human use; the best-known example is the Sabin polio vaccine, which is given orally and absorbed in the digestive tract. There is also a flu vaccine delivered by nasal spray, and mucosal vaccines against cholera, rotavirus and typhoid fever.
To create better ways of delivering such vaccines, Irvine and his colleagues built upon a nanoparticle they developed two years ago. The protein fragments that make up the vaccine are encased in a sphere made of several layers of lipids that are chemically “stapled” to one another, making the particles more durable inside the body.
“It’s like going from a soap bubble to a rubber tire. You have something that’s chemically much more resistant to disassembly,” Irvine says.
This allows the particles to resist disintegration once they reach the lungs. With this sturdier packaging, the protein vaccine remains in the lungs long enough for immune cells lining the surface of the lungs to grab them and deliver them to T cells. Activating T cells is a critical step for the immune system to form a memory of the vaccine particles so it will be primed to respond again during an infection.
Stopping the spread of infection
In studies of mice, the researchers found that HIV or cancer antigens encapsulated in nanoparticles were taken up by immune cells much more successfully than vaccine delivered to the lungs or under the skin without being trapped in nanoparticles.
HIV does not infect mice, so to test the immune response generated by the vaccines, the researchers infected the mice with a version of the vaccinia virus that was engineered to produce the HIV protein delivered by the vaccine.
Mice vaccinated with nanoparticles were able to quickly contain the virus and prevent it from escaping the lungs. Vaccinia virus usually spreads to the ovaries soon after infection, but the researchers found that the vaccinia virus in the ovaries of mice vaccinated with nanoparticles was undetectable, while substantial viral concentrations were found in mice that received other forms of the vaccine.
Mice that received the nanoparticle vaccine lost a small amount of weight after infection but then fully recovered, whereas the viral challenge was 100 percent lethal to mice who received the non-nanoparticle vaccine.
“Giving the vaccine at the mucosal surface in the nanocapsule form allowed us to completely block that systemic infection,” Irvine says.
The Latest on: Nanoparticle vaccine
- Universal Flu Vaccine Candidate Effective in Mice on August 22, 2018 at 7:06 am
Unlike traditional vaccines that need to be reformulated every year to match mutated viral proteins and different viral strains, the new lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine triggers str... […]
- Novel Nanoparticle Vaccine Protects against Influenza A Virus in Animal Study on August 1, 2018 at 2:02 am
Dr. Bao-Zhong Wang of the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University and colleagues have developed an experimental nanoparticle vaccine against influenza A virus that seems to work ... […]
- Scientists develop preliminary universal influenza vaccine on July 31, 2018 at 1:00 am
Scientists have developed a new nanoparticle vaccine that could effectively protect mice against influenza A virus, providing a promising approach for developing universal vaccines for the infectious ... […]
- Scientists develop preliminary universal influenza vaccine on July 31, 2018 at 12:34 am
New York, July 31 (IANS) Scientists have developed a new nanoparticle vaccine that could effectively protect mice against influenza A virus, providing a promising approach for developing universal vac... […]
- American, Chinese scientists develop preliminary universal vaccine on July 30, 2018 at 12:56 pm
(REUTERS/ Photo) WASHINGTON, July 30 (Xinhua) -- American and Chinese scientists developed a new nanoparticle vaccine that could effectively protect mice against influenza A virus, according to a stud... […]
- Nanoparticle vaccine made with peptides effective against influenza virus, study finds on July 30, 2018 at 12:19 pm
A new, double-layered nanoparticle vaccine made with peptides has been found to effectively protect mice against influenza A virus, according to a study led by Georgia State University. Influenza, a c... […]
- Nanoparticles could offer a new way to help eradicate polio worldwide on July 16, 2018 at 2:42 am
One-shot polio vaccine could help eradicate the disease worldwide. Credit: Massachusetts Institute of Technology A new nanoparticle vaccine developed by MIT researchers could assist efforts to eradica... […]
- Nanoparticle vaccine for universal protection against influenza on February 1, 2018 at 12:45 am
Atlanta - Scientists have developed a novel universal vaccine to combat influenza A viruses. The new vaccine aims to produce long-lasting immunity. The results to date are based on studies undertaken ... […]
- New nanoparticle-based vaccine to combat influenza A viruses on January 24, 2018 at 6:07 am
New York, Jan 24 (IANS) A new vaccine developed using nanoparticles offers universal protection against several influenza A viruses such as H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9, researchers say. Influenza, a con... […]
via Google News and Bing News